Table 5

Analysis of covariance, adjusted by age, sex, race, disease duration and disease-modifying treatment status, showing associations between CV risk factors and MRI outcomes in the study groups

Disease groupMRI variablep Value*
Individual CV risk factors
 HypertensionMSNGMV0.042
MSNCV0.046
 Heart diseaseMSNGMV0.029
MSNCV0.033
CISNLVV0.029
RRMSNGMV0.044
 BMI ≥25MST1-LV0.039
RRMST1-LV0.048
 SmokingMSNBPV0.049
Two or more overall CV risk factorsMSNGMV<0.001
MSNCV0.003
RRMSNGMV0.04
RRMSNCV0.04
 Hypertension and smokingMSNGMV0.034
RRMST2-LV0.035
 Hypertension and BMI ≥25RRMSNGMV0.048
 Heart disease and smokingCISNLVV0.048
Three or more overall CV risk factorsMSNGMV0.04
MSNCV0.048
 Hypertension and heart disease and BMI ≥25RRMST2-LV0.009
PMSLVV0.045
 Hypertension and heart disease and smokingMST2-LV0.039
RRMST2-LV0.029
PMST2-LV0.044
 Hypertension and smoking and BMI ≥25RRMSNBPV0.044
RRMSNGMV0.047
PMSNLVV0.045
  • *Only significant associations corrected for multiple comparisons are shown.

  • BMI, body mass index; CIS, clinically isolated syndrome; CV, cardiovascular; LV, lesion volume; MS, multiple sclerosis; NBPV, normalised brain parenchymal volume; NCV, normalised cortical volume; NGMV, normalised grey matter volume; NLVV, normalised lateral ventricle volume; PMS, progressive MS; RRMS, relapsing–remitting MS.