Table 1

Demographic information for healthy and concussed athletes 

CharacteristicHealthy athletesConcussed athletes
 Total number1818,14,14
 Age (years)20.43 (1.54)20.32 (1.07)
 Years education, mean (SD)13.50 (1.50)13.06 (0.80)
 Body Mass Index, mean (SD)30.68 (4.50)29.38 (6.27)
 Years football experience, mean (SD)10.28 (2.87)11.72 (3.21)
 Prior concussions, mean (SD)*0.28 (0.75)1.11 (1.23)
 Time of freezing (4C/immediate)10/89/9, 5/9, 7/7
Medications taken/Health information
 Self-reported ADHD02,1,2
Player position
 Running back32
 Wide receiver25
 Tight end10
 Offensive lineman12
 Defensive back24
 Defensive end21
 Defensive tackle31
Concussion severity
 Loss of consciousnessNA0
 PTA (<1 min/5–10 min/10–20 min)NA2/1/2
 Retrograde amnesia (<5 min/10–20 min/undefined)NA1/1/2
  • *Indicates significant at p<0.05. Values for concussed athletes at each time point are indicated as ‘T1, T2, T3’, where appropriate.

  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. PTA, retrograde amnesia; NA, not applicable.