Table 3

Risk estimates corresponding to constipation ≥10 years pre-PD

ReferenceYearAuthorStudy designExposure to outcome (years)p ValueRRHRORCI lowerCI upper
152001AbbottCohort120.0132.301.24.5
172009SavicaCase–control>200.00052.481.494.11
92014SchragCase–control>102.011.622.49
102014Pont-SunyerCase–control>10<0.052.71.45.2
  • CI, confidence interval; HR, hazard ratio; OR, odds ratio; PD, Parkinson's disease; RR, relative risk.