Table 1

Imaging modalities and markers for Parkinson's disease

ModalityExample tracers/sequenceObservation(s)AnalysisAccessibilityCostSuitability for screening
Loss of binding in striatumVisual inspection, quantification++++++++
TCS2–3.5 Hz transducerHyperechogenicity in the region of the substantia nigraVisual inspection, quantification++++++++
Loss of binding in striatum
May help differentiate atypical PD
Visual inspection, quantification+++++++
MRITraditional (T1& T2), T2/T2* (gradient echo), DTI, spin echo, fMRINumerous reported, none establishedVisual inspection, quantification+++++++
MIBG123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidineLow heart-to-mediastinum ratioVisual inspection, quantification++++++
  • Accessibility, cost and suitability for screening are estimated semiquantitatively on a four-point relative scale with + lowest and ++++ highest.

  • DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; FDG, fludeoxyglucose; fMRI, functional MRI; Hz, hertz; MIBG, metaiodobenzylguanidine; PET, positron emission tomography; SPECT, single photon emission computed tomography; TCS, transcranial sonography.