Table 1

Subtypes of motor impairments in musicians

Motor fatigueMental or bodily fatigue impairs movement coordination causing poor regularity of notes or a loss of sound quality. Short term and disappears after overnight rest.
Overuse injuryShould only be diagnosed when pain is the dominating feature, and a history of either prolonged or unaccustomed practice exists. Usually subsides a few weeks after onset.
Choking under pressureDescribes acute performance failure when individual perceives a subjectively unmanageable situation accompanied by fear of failure, anxiety and increased arousal leading to reduced motor control and worse performance outcome.
Dynamic stereotypeUsed when motor incoordination persists for more than 4 weeks. More modifiable and fluctuating than musicians dystonia.
DystoniaPersistent muscular incoordination, or loss of voluntary motor control.