Table 1

Clinical and electrodiagnostic features of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus and other flavivirus infection

Report (year)CountryNumber of patientsClinical featuresElectrodiagnosis and findings
Zika virus
 Oehler et al (2014)5French-Polynesia1Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: prolonged distal motor latency, delayed F waves, conduction block
 Cao-Lormeau et al (2016)3, Watrin et al (2016)8French-Polynesia42Classical GBS (79% facial palsy at nadir)37 patients reported as AMAN with RCF but had very prolonged mean distal motor latencies in median (12.4 ms), ulnar (5.8 ms) and peroneal (9.9 ms) nerves, typically seen in AIDP
 Rozé et al (2016)13Martinique2Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: prolonged distal motor latency, slow velocities, temporal dispersion, conduction block, absent F waves, sural-sparing pattern. Needle electromyography normal
 Brasil et al (2016)9Brazil1Paraparetic GBSNormal
 Fontes et al (2016)6Brazil1Lower limb weakness and facial palsyAIDP: no details but reported demyelinating pattern
 Siu et al (2016)14New Zealand/Tonga1Classical GBSAIDP: prolonged distal motor latencies in median (13.5 ms), ulnar (6.9 ms), peroneal (12.6 ms), tibial (9.8 ms)
 Dirlikov et al (2016)11Puerto Rico34Classical GBS (63% facial palsy)5 patients. No details but all reported as AIDP
 Arias et al (2016)10Colombia19Classical GBS (42% facial palsy)14 patients. No details. 10 patients reported as AMAN but with prolonged distal motor latencies and sural-sparing pattern. 2 patients inexcitable and 2 normal
 do Rosário et al (2016)15Brazil2Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP. Case 1: prolonged distal motor latencies in ulnar (6.2 ms) and tibial (7.7 ms); case 2: prolonged distal motor latency in median (7.5 ms), ulnar slowing (30 m/s) and prolonged F wave (40 ms)
 Parra et al (2016)12Colombia6864 classical GBS (50% bilateral facial palsy)
2 Miller Fisher syndrome
1 facial diplegia with areflexia
1 pure sensory GBS
46 patients. 36 AIDP with prolonged distal motor latencies, conduction block, and sural-sparing pattern; 4 equivocal; 3 inexcitable; 2 normal; 1 AMAN
Dengue virus
 Chew et al (1998)30Malaysia2Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: prolonged distal latencies and reduced conduction velocity
 Esack et al (1999)31Trinidad1Classical GBSAIDP: reported as predominantly demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy
 Santos et al (2004)32Brazil1Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: no details but reported slowed motor conduction velocity
 Kumar et al (2005)33India1Classical GBSAIDP: reduced motor and sensory amplitudes, normal distal latency and conduction velocity but prolonged F wave latencies
 Chen and Lee (2007)34Taiwan1Mild lower limb weaknessAIDP: prolonged distal latency, reduced amplitude, absent H and F waves
 Verma et al (2011)35India3Details not provided2 AMSAN and 1 AIDP: no details reported
 Ralapanawa et al (2015)36Sri Lanka1Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: no details but reported severe demyelination in upper and lower limbs
 Simon et al (2016)37New Caledonia3Classical GBS (facial palsy in 2 patients)AIDP in 2 patients: slow conduction velocity, prolonged distal latency, delayed F waves and presence of conduction block. Normal conductions in 1 patient
 Boo et al (2015)38Malaysia1Mild distal lower limb weakness and sensory impairmentAMAN: no details but reported axonal motor neuropathy
Japanese encephalitis virus
 Ravi et al (1994)39India11Classical GBSAIDP: no details but reported demyelination
 Xiang et al (2014)40China1Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: reported as acute demyelinating sensorimotor polyradiculoneuropathy
West Nile virus
 Ahmed et al (2000)41USA1Classical GBS with facial palsyAIDP: prolonged distal latencies, slow conduction velocities
 Sejvar et al (2005)42USA4Classical GBS (facial palsy in 1 patient)AIDP: no details but reported as predominantly demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy
  • AIDP, acute inflammatory demeyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; AMAN, acute motor axonal neuropathy; AMSAN, acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy; equivocal, not fulfilling the criteria for primary acute demyelinating or axonal neuropathy; GBS, Guillain-Barré syndrome; NCS, nerve conduction studies; inexcitable, inexcitable nerves; RCF, reversible conduction failure.