Table 1

Studies comparing psychogenic non-epileptic seizures with other functional neurological symptoms

StudySample (PNES/FNS)Differences
Stone et al 16 20/30Younger; more single, childless, educated, borderline personality disorder, parental divorce, CSA, life events preceding onset; less somatoform history and parental warmth
Reuber et al 17 30/29More histories of all trauma and non-sexual trauma
Grimaldi et al 18 9/8None
Strutt et al 19 22/17More dissociative amnesia, abuse, depression symptoms; greater attribution of control of their condition to others (non-physicians)
Driver-Dunckley et al 21 116/56Younger, younger age at onset; more CSA and other abuse, life events preceding onset; less educated, anxiety
Hopp et al)22 35/104Younger; more female
Ludwig et al 23 107/40Younger age at onset; more endorsement of stress and psychological causes, family impact, effective treatment
Demartini et al 24 20/20Higher dissociation (measured on DES and CDS); less compartmentalisation (SDQ)
  • CDS, Cambridge Depersonalisation Scale; CSA, childhood sexual abuse; DES, Dissociative Experiences Scale; FNS, functional neurological symptoms; PNES, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures; SDQ, somatoform dissociation questionnaire.