Table 3

Secondary treatment outcomes

Intervention
Initial management by neurologist
Control
Immediate management by GP
Treatment comparison
NMean (SD) at baselineMean (SD) at 12 monthsMean (SD) change* NMean (SD) at baselineMean (SD) at 12 monthsMean (SD) change* Difference between mean change* (95% CI)Treatment effect on 12-month outcome
p value
VAS pain 6547.94 (23.52)48.17 (25.98)0.23 (26.74)6049.57 (27.58)42.22 (26.56)−7.35 (23.46)7.58 (−1.36 to 16.52)0.32
Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) 9618.39 (13.13)14.81 (12.51)−3.58 (10.57)9318.03 (13.56)13.61 (12.86)−4.42 (10.88)0.84 (−2.24 to 3.91)0.48
Somatisation subscale (SCL-90) 9828.24
(8.21)
24.77 (7.59)−3.48 (7.41)9528.39
(8.62)
24.92 (9.r Marinus Vermeulen, 25)−3.47 (8.40)−0.01 (−2.25 to 2.24)0.95
HADS anxiety
HADS depression
98
98
7.79
(4.68)
6.62
(4.95)
6.84 (4.17)
5.65 (4.88)
−0.95 (3.82)
−0.97 (4.13)
94
94
8.46
(4.67)
6.81
(4.34)
7.31
(4.33)
5.55
(4.74)
−1.15 (3.26)
−1.26 (4.04)
0.20 (−0.81 to 1.21)
0.29 (−0.88 to 1.45)
0.90
0.69
ALDS§ 9783.11
(8.31)
84.20 (8.73)1.09
(9.22)
9584.95
(6.26)
85.53 (6.67)0.59
(4.59)
0.51 (−1.57 to 2.58)0.58
VAS general well-being§ 8047.46 (23.18)55.50 (24.51)8.04 (25.60)7842.63 (23.65)52.28 (26.21)9.65 (25.16)−1.62 (−9.59 to 6.36)0.82
  • * Reported mean changes and differences between mean changes may slightly differ from apparent differences due to rounding.

  • Treatment effects on the 12-month secondary outcome scores were analysed using multivariable linear regression, including the concerning baseline scores and the stratification variable (type of functional symptom: pain, ‘pseudo’neurological symptoms and ‘positive’ sensory symptoms) into the models.

  • Higher scores on the VAS pain, PCS, Somatisation subscale and HADS indicate more impaired health.

  • § Higher scores on the ALDS and VAS general well-being indicate better functional status and well-being.

  • ALDS, AMC Linear Disability Scale; GP, general practitioner; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale; SCL-90, Symptom Check List; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.