Table 4

Self-report of mental health and tests of cognition (total score unless otherwise indicated)

RIRP mean (SD) [minimum, maximum]Controls mean (SD) [minimum, maximum]p Value *
Mental health
 HADS depression2.8 (2.1) [0, 9]2.6 (2.8) [0, 10]0.941
 HADS anxiety4.8 (3.0) [0, 12]5.2 (3.6) [0, 12]0.157
Cognition
 MOCA27.4 (2.3) [21, 30]28.0 (1.5) [25, 30]0.806
 RAVLT immediate recall50.2 (11.1) [26, 71]56.1 (8.4) [42, 72]0.022
 RAVLT delayed recall10.5 (3.6) [2, 15]11.6 (2.3) [8, 15]0.165
 SART (commission errors)10.3 (5.0) [8, 13]10.0 (6.0) [6, 12]0.860
 SART (reaction time)336 (68) [186, 563]313 (65) [258, 570]0.618
 Symbol Digit Test50.9 (11.2) [25, 76]53.0 (7.5) [31, 70]0.490
 Trail Making Test B (s)56.1 (18.5) [4, 23]51.9 (17.6) [26, 91]0.434
 Judgement of Line Orientation28.2 (1.9) [23, 30]28.1 (2.3) [21, 30]0.442
Grooved Pegboard Test (s)
 Dominant hand74.9 (12.3) [54.7, 105.0]68.7 (14.0) [49.4, 108.0]0.038
 Non-dominant hand85.4 (15.3) [47.9, 118.0]80.1 (20.0) [55.9, 149.1]0.126
  • *Linear regression model adjusted for age, SIMD and years of education.

  • HADS, Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale; MOCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; RAVLT, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test; RIRP, retired international rugby players; SART, Sustained Attention to Response Task; SIMD, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2012.