Repeat concussion | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

No (n=7) | Moderate (n=27) | High (n=18) | p Value* | |

HADS depression† | 3.1 (3.3) [0, 9] | 2.6 (1.9) [0, 7] | 3.1 (1.7) [0, 6] | 0.630 |

HADS anxiety† | 3.7 (2.9) [1, 9] | 4.7 (2.6) [0, 10] | 5.4 (3.5) [1, 12] | 0.389 |

RPQ† | 0.3 (0.8) [0, 2] | 2.3 (5.5) [0, 19] | 9.6 (11.1) [0, 28] | 0.028‡ |

GOSE§<8 | 0 | 6 (22%) | 7 (39%) | 0.142¶ |

*Unadjusted linear regression model p value.

†Mean (SD) [range].

‡Unadjusted Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test p value; linear model inappropriate due to non-normal distribution.

§n (%); note a score <8 indicates persisting effect of brain injury on daily life, but may not be disabling (see text).

¶Unadjusted Fisher's exact test p value; logistic regression model not appropriate due to small numbers.

GOSE, Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; RPQ, Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire.