Table 1

Baseline cognitive, psychiatric and non-motor symptoms in healthy controls and in Parkinson’s disease

PD
(n=84)
HC
(n=42)
p Value
Age62.4±9.361.5±9.00.6
Education level15.4±3.015.5±2.90.9
Gender (males/females)58/2630/120.8
MoCA27.8±2.9282±1.20.8
Symbol digit modalities test41.7±10.549.0±11.30.003
HVLT-R free recall24.5±5.525.9±4.80.1
HVLT-R recognition discrimination22.3±7.124.1±6.30.2
Phonemic fluency13.4±4.413.2±4.60.4
Benton judgement of line orientation13.9±1.913.6±1.50.2
Letter number sequencing10.4±2.711.3±2.60.2
Semantic fluency48.0±11.651.1±10.10.2
STAI-state33.7±10.327.5±7.40.001
STAI-trait33.2±10.028.2±6.40.007
STAI-total66.9±19.455.7±13.30.001
GDS2.6±2.61.3±2.5<0.0001
UPSIT21.4±8.934±3.6<0.0001
SCOPA_AUT9.6±6.45.4±3.4<0.0001
RBDSQ (Y/N) (%)*34/50 (40.5%)6/36 (14.3%)0.003
  • *RBDSQ: yes ≤5, no ≥5.

  • GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; HC, healthy control; HVLT, Hopkins verbal learning test; MoCA, Montreal cognitive assessment; PD, Parkinson’s disease; RBDSQ, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder Questionnaire; SCOPA-AUT, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-Autonomic; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; UPSIT, University of Pennsylvania smell identification test.