Table 2

Baseline cognitive, psychiatric and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease with (PD-ICB) and without (PD-no-ICB) impulsive–compulsive behaviour

PD-ICB
(n=42)
PD-no-ICB
(n=42)
p Value
Age (years)62.6±9.662.2±9.10.8
Gender (M/F)30/1228/140.6
UPDRS-III22.3±9.620.6±9.80.3
H&Y1.8±0.51.7±0.50.3
Schwab & England (%)94.4±6.193.5±6.70.5
Disease duration from symptoms onset to baseline (months)19.9±13.521.7±23.90.6
Disease duration from symptoms onset to follow-up (months)*43.8±17.361.7±29.50.0001
LEDD total (mg)*353.3±281.3539.0±342.90.01
LEDD D-Ag (mg)*57.62±96.753.6±87.10.9
MoCA27.4±2.128.3±1.60.03
Symbol digit modalities test41.7±12.048.6±11.60.9
HVLT-R free recall24.2±5.724.8±5.40.6
HVLT-R recognition discrimination21.5±7.823.3±6.20.3
Phonemic fluency12.9±4.613.8±4.20.3
Benton judgement of line orientation12.7±2.213.4±1.50.2
Letter number sequencing10.3±3.110.5±2.20.6
Semantic fluency47.4±11.741.6±8.60.5
STAI-state36.2±10.631.1±9.50.02
STAI-trait35.4±9.630.8±10.00.01
STAI-total71.5±19.261.9±18.40.009
GDS2.8±2.242.5±3.00.2
UPSIT20.9±9.421.9±8.50.6
SCOPA_AUT11.6±7.67.4±3.80.004
RBDSQ (Y/N) (%)22/20 (52.3%)12/30 (28.5%)0.03
  • *At the time of QUIP conversion from negative to positive in PD-ICB or at the last available follow-up visit in PD-no-ICB.

  • D-Ag, dopamine agonists; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; H&Y, Hoehn and Yahr stage; HVLT, Hopkins verbal learning test; LEDD, levodopa equivalent daily dose; MoCA, Montreal cognitive assessment; RBDSQ, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder Questionnaire (yes ≤ 5, no ≥5); SCOPA-AUT, Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson’s disease-Autonomic; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.; UPSIT, University of Pennsylvania smell identification test.