Table 1

Structural neuroimaging studies in POE

StudyYearParticipants (n)AnalysisRegions evaluatedKey results
Maier et al 23 200012 POE, 12 EPY-NP, 26 SCZ, 38 HCManual tracing, spectroscopyHippocampus, amygdala↓ Hippocampus/amygdala volume in POE and SCZ, but not in EPY-NP, suggesting common neuropathology
Briellmann et al 24 20006 PIP, 45 EPY-NPManual tracingHippocampusNo difference in total hippocampal volumes. PIP group displayed relative anterior hippocampal preservation.
Marsh et al 25 20019 IIP, 18 EPY-NP, 46 SCZ, 57 HCManual tracing and custom automated analysis, T2 relaxometryTemporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, ventricles, frontoparietal regionVentricular enlargement in IIP and SCZ. Temporal and extratemporal cortical grey matter volume deficits in SCZ, IIP and EPY-NP, with greatest abnormalities in IIP group. EPY-NP group had white matter deficits in temporal lobe, and smaller hippocampi. No other differences in hippocampal volumes between groups
Tebartz van Elst et al 26 200211 IIP, 15 PIP, 24 EPY-NP, 20 HCManual tracing, T2 relaxometryWhole brain, hippocampus, amygdalaPOE showed ↓ whole brain volume. No significant difference in hippocampal volumes between groups. Highly significant enlargement of amygdala bilaterally in POE. No significant difference in volumes between IIP and PIP
Marchetti et al 27 200336 POE, 30 HCManual tracingHippocampus, amygdala↓ Left hippocampus in POE. Hippocampal ratio significantly greater in POE (left laterality effect)
Rüsch et al 30 200426 IIP and PIP, 24 EPY-NP, 20 HCVBM (SPM99)Whole brainNo significant differences in cortical grey matter between POE and TLE
Flügel et al 28 200620 IIP, 20 EPY-NP, 23 HCVBM (SPM2),
Whole brain, hippocampus↓ MTR signal in left superior and middle temporal gyri in patients with lesion negative IIP. No significant volumetric differences between groups in hippocampus, or other grey and white matter
Flügel et al 32 200620 IIP, 20 EPY-NPDTIMiddle frontal gyri, middle temporal gyriIIP group showed ↓ fractional anisotropy in frontal and temporal regions and ↑ mean diffusivity in bilateral frontal regions. Lower factional anisotropy related to neuropsychological performance
Sundram et al 33 20105 PIP, 5 IIP, 10 EPY-NPVBM (SPM5)Whole brain↓ Grey and white matter bilaterally in POE group as compared with EPY-NP group
DuBois et al 34 201111 PIP, 11 EPY-NP, 11 HCCortical thickness (Freesurfer)Cortex↑ Cortical thickness in right lateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex and right middle temporal gyrus in PIP compared with EPY-NP. Thinning in right angular gyrus, and left anterior inferior temporal gyrus in PIP group in comparison to EPY-NP and HC groups
Gutierrez-Galve et al 36 201222 IIP, 23 EPY-NP, 20 HCSurface-based morphometry (Freesurfer)Cortex↓ Cortical thickness in inferior frontal gyrus in patients with IIP. IIP group IQ associated with ↓ area (but not thickness) in frontotemporal cortex
Sone et al 37 201611 POE, 15 EPY-NP, 14 HCGraph theoretical analysisWhole brain↑ Path length, transitivity, ↓ global efficiency in POE relative to EPY-NP group. ↓ connectivity in contralateral temporal lobe, ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus and bilateral postcentral gyri in POE group
  • DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; EPY-NP, epilepsy without psychosis; HC, healthy control; IIP, interictal psychosis; MTR, magnetisation transfer ratio; PIP, postictal psychosis; POE, psychosis of epilepsy; SCZ, schizophrenia; SPM, statistical parametric mapping; TLE, temporal lobe epilepsy; VBM, voxel-based morphometry.