Table 1

Summary of select neuroimaging studies in schizophrenia

ReferenceCtrlSZMethodBrain region results/effect size
Kambeitz et al 16 265278D2-like receptor availabilityNo change in D2 receptors in extrastriatal temporal cortex, thalamus or substantia nigra
Yilmaz et al 19 206PET/SPECT D2 occupancyAntipsychotics at 60%–80% occupancy in the striatum are correlated (1.35) with improvement of psychotic symptoms.
Howes et al 21 231251PET PDA (L-DOPA uptake)Presynaptic dopamine is elevated in the striatum (large effect size=0.79).
Minzenberg et al 24 623594ALE fMRI executive functionDecreased activation in DLPFC, VLPFC, ACC, medial dorsal thalamus
Bernard et al 13 707583ALE during emotion, executive function, language, motor, reward and working memory tasks46% decreased activation in the basal ganglia during tasks requiring coordination with the frontal cortex
Kühn and Gallinat 18 28228595 of 285 off antipsychotics
ALE resting state fMRI
Hypoactivation of the left hippocampus in the default mode network
Radua et al 15 1) 439
2) 175
3) 159
1) 478
2) 183
3) 155
fMRI of monetary reward; correlation with positive and negative symptoms:
1) anticipation
2) feedback
3) prediction error
Hypoactivation of ventral striatum during feedback (r=−0.56 to −0.57) and reward anticipation (r=−0.5 to −0.7) that was correlated with negative symptoms (r=−0.41)
Adriano et al 22 1) 2130
2) 562
3) 896
1) 1617
2) 388
3) 739
MRI volumetric analysis
1) All patients mixed
2) First-episode SZ
3) Chronic SZ
Hippocampal reduction effect size (−0.48 to −0.65)
Ellison-Wright and Bullmore 26 383407DTI fractional anisotropy connectivityReduction in left deep white matter tract connectivity in frontal (SGCWM DBS target) and temporal lobes
Sayo et al 20 72*72*Ventricular-to-brain ratio SZ vs controlsIncreased 0.3-fold in lateral ventricles
Merritt et al 14 14511686Glutamate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy
To measure glutamate and metabolites
Increased glutamate and metabolites in basal ganglia, thalamus and hippocampus (effect size 0.32–0.63)
Kegeles et al 23 1818PET synaptic DAIncreased presynaptic DA 0.67-fold in associative striatum. No change in ventral or sensorimotor striatum
Eisenberg et al 12 303-week atypical antipsychotics effects:
1) PET presynaptic DA
3) executive function subscale PANSS
Antipsychotic-induced increase in both presynaptic DA, and rCBF in VS and decreased executive function in VS
Lahti et al 25 29PET rCBF responder (n=13) vs poor responder (n=16) to antipsychoticsIncreased rCBF in VS in responders
Schobel et al 17 19Prodromal (9 converted to psychotic vs 10 who did not)
1. CBV (2 time points)
2. volume (2 time points)
Decreased cerebral blood volume in the CA1 and subiculum and decreased volume in hippocampus
  • Bold denotes meta-analysis.

  • *72 studies included with patients and control subjects.

  • ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; ALE, activation likelihood estimate; AS, associative striatum; CA1, cornu ammonis 1; CBV, cerebral blood volume; Ctrl, controls; D2, dopamine D2-like receptor; DA, dopamine; DBS, deep brain stimulation; DLPFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DTI, diffusion tensor imaging; fMRI, functional MRI; L-DOPA, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PDA, presynaptic dopamine; PET, positron emission tomography; rCBF, regional cerebral blood flow; SGCWM, subgenual cingulate white matter; SN, substantia nigra; SPECT, single-photon emission CT; SZ, schizophrenia; T, thalamus; TC, temporal cortex; TL, temporal lobe; VLPFC, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex; VS, ventral striatum.