Table 5

Types of MBDs in children from AED-exposed mothers

Type of MBDAffected babies (n)AEDsSupposed diagnosis
Ventricular septal defect3GBP; GBP; PGBEpi; Epi; Psy
Atrial septal defect, tricuspid insufficiency1LTGEpi
Bilateral postaxial polydactyly1CBZEpi
Ectopic kidney1CNZPsy
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia1CBZEpi
Multiple congenital anomalies+hypospadias1PB+ETSEpi
  • AED, antiepileptic drug; CBZ, carbamazepine; CNZ, clonazepam; Epi, epilepsy; ETS, ethosuximide; GBP, gabapentin; LTG, lamotrigine; MBD, major birth defects; PB, phenobarbital; PGB, pregabalin; Psy, psychiatric disorder.