Table 1

Characteristics of studies included into quantitative analysis

StudyStudy typeMulticentreTICInTICI grading provided byDefinition of mortality providedDifferences in baseline characteristicsDefinition of sICHSites of occlusion includedAdjusted analysis availableAdjusted for
Dargazanli et al 7 ROYesmTICI113109One neuroradiologist, blinded to the interventionalists’ gradings and clinical outcomes3-month mortalityBetter collaterals, less cardioembolic aetiology, shorter onset to reperfusion metrics, lower number of passes in TICI3 patientsPresence of ICH with NIHSS worsening of ≥4 within 24 hours or prompting deathICA, M1, M2YesCentre, age, diabetes, admission NIHSS score, prior use of intravenous thrombolysis, site of occlusion, favourable collateral flow, aetiology and onset to reperfusion time
Almekhlafi et al 17 RONomTICI and eTICI292732Two neurointerventionalists (blinding not specified, one graded eTICI, one graded mTICI)3-month mortalityNo P values available, however, faster imaging to reperfusion times and higher number treated with intravenous tPA in TICI2c/3 patientsSITS-MOSTAnterior circulation stroke, not further specifiedNoNA
Yoo et al 3 ROYesmTICI5397Consensus reading of neurointerventionalists and stroke neurologists with significant clinical and research experience in intra-arterial treatmentNANANAM1NoNA
Carvalho et al 25 RONomTICI11068Operator measured, non-blinded3-month mortalityNot statistically significant shorter onset to reperfusion metrics in TICI3 patientsECASSICA, M1, M2, tandemYesAge, sex, diabetes, hypertension, left hemispheric stroke, symptom to reperfusion time
Kaesmacher et al16 RONoeTICI4511784Two neuroradiologists in consensus, blinded to interventionalist’s grading and clinical outcomesIn-hospital mortalityNot statistically significant shorter onset to reperfusion metrics in TICI2c/3 patientsPH1/2 (radiological)M1/M2YesAge, admission NIHSS, onset to reperfusion time, pretreatment alteplase
Chamorro et al 23 RONomTICI7451Experienced radiologists and interventionalists (number not specified), blinded to all clinical data3-month mortalityShorter onset to reperfusion metrics, lower number of passes and better collaterals in TICI3 patientsPresence of ICH and NIHSS worsening of ≥4ICA, M1, M2, tandemYesAge, sex, admission NIHSS, target occlusion location, ASPECTS, pretreatment alteplase and collaterals
Linfante et al 26 ROYesmTICI127107Site-specific grading, not further specifiedNANANAM1, M2, ICA, basilar (10%)No
Rangaraju et al 27 RONomTICI3564Operator measured, non-blinded3-month mortalityNoneICA, M1YesAge, NIHSS and ASPECTS
Schmitz et al 24 PH-RCTYesmTICI694Core lab adjudicated (IMS III)NANANAICA, M1, M2NoNA
Humphries et al 28*ROYesNot specified5237Operator measured, non-blindedNANANAM1, M2, ICA, basilar (10%)NoNA
Massari et al 29 RONomTICI2318Operator measured, non-blindedNANANAM1, M2, ICA, basilar/vertebrobasilar junction (~10%)NoNA
Marks et al 30 PH-RCTYesmTICI1828Core lab adjudicated (DEFUSE 2)NANANAM1, M2, M3, ICANoNA
Goyal et al 31 ROYesNot specified200216Not specified3-month mortalityNoneNot specifiedNAYesNot specified (‘potential confounders’)
Liebeskind et al 13 PH-RCTYesoTICI2C44258125Core lab adjudicated (HERMES)3-month mortalityNANAICA, M1NoNA
  • *There are discrepancies regarding the true rate of TICI3 and TICI2b reperfusions. While table 3 of the respective publication suggests that there are 52 TICI3 cases and 37 TICI2b cases, the text states that there were 46 TICI3 cases. The numbers used for quantitative analysis are derived from table 3 of this publication.

  • ASPECTS, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score; DEFUSE 2, Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution Study 2; ECASS, European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study; eTICI, extended TICI scale; HERMES, Highly Effective Reperfusion Evaluated in Multiple Endovascular Stroke Trials; ICA, internal carotid artery; ICH, intracranial haemorrhage; IMS III, Interventional Management of Stroke III; M1/M2/M3, segment one/two/three of the middle cerebral artery; mTICI, modified TICI scale; NA, not applicable; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; oTICI, original TICI scale; PH, parenchymal haematoma; PH-RCT, post hoc analysis of randomised controlled trial data; RO, retrospective observational; sICH, symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage; SITS-MOST, Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke- Monitoring Study; TICI, thrombolysis in cerebral infarction; tPA, tissue plasminogen activator. Total number of patients n= 2461, n=2379 with available follow-up for the primary outcome (mRS at day 90).