Table 2

Classification of change in participants’ psychological distress in individual trials between pre-treatment and post-treatment assessment according to Jacobson’s Reliable Change Index

TrialReliable change category (%)
nDeterioratedUnchangedImproved
Thompson et al (2010)26
Primary: mBDI
  CBT+M195.363.231.6
  WLC214.871.423.8
Difference in % improved relative to control=7.8
Secondary: PHQ-9
  CBT+M1910.557.931.6
  WLC219.571.419.0
Difference in % improved relative to control=12.6
Ciechanowski et al (2010)27
Primary: HSCL-20
  CBT323.146.950.0
  TAU3312.163.624.2
Difference in % improved relative to control=25.8
Schröder et al (2014)12
Primary: BDI-I
  CBT+M + ACT25072.028.0
  WLC32096.93.1
Difference in % improved relative to control=24.9
Gandy et al (2014)11
Primary: NDDI-E*
  CBT200.075.025.0
  WLC2512.080.08.0
Difference in % improved relative to control=17.0
Secondary: HADS-D
  CBT205.085.010.0
  WLC254.092.04.0
Difference in % improved relative to control=6.0
Secondary: HADS-A
  CBT205.080.015.0
  WLC258.080.012.0
Difference in % improved relative to control=3.0
Thompson et al (2015)22
Primary: mBDI
  CBT+M523.875.021.2
  WLC565.492.91.8
Difference in % improved relative to control=19.4
Secondary: PHQ-9
  CBT+M5217.369.213.5
  WLC5619.675.05.4
Difference in % improved relative to control=8.1
  • Duration of intervention and timing of post-treatment assessment were: Thompson et al (2010)22 intervention duration= 8 weeks, timing of post-treatment assessment= ~8 weeks; Ciechanowski et al 27 (2010) intervention duration= 19 weeks, timing of post-treatment assessment=24 weeks; Schröder et al 12(2014) intervention duration= 9 weeks, timing of post-treatment assessment= 9 weeks; Gandy et al (2014)11 intervention duration= 8 weeks, timing of post-treatment assessment= 9 weeks and Thompson et al (2015)22 intervention duration= 8 weeks, timing of post-treatment assessment= 10.5 weeks. Individual patient data for the secondary outcome measure NDDI-E within Thompson et al 22 (2015) were not made available for analysis.

  • *The designation of outcome measures as being the primary or secondary outcome measure was taken directly from trial reports, except for Gandy et al (2014)11 (see Outcome assessment section).

  • ACT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CBT, cognitive-behavioural therapy; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Anxiety subscale; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depression subscale; HSCL-20, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-20; M, mindfulness; mBDI, modified Beck Depression Inventory; NDDI-E, Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; TAU, treatment as usual; WLC, waitlist control.