Table 2

Logistic regression models for the association of lacunar versus non-lacunar stroke with functional improvement per mRS, RMI and/or BI between 3 months and 1-year poststroke, adjusted for age, sex and 3-month score on the relevant measure, in 3-month survivors of ischaemic stroke


mRS improvement between 3 months and 1 yearRMI improvement between
3 months and 1 year
BI and/or RMI improvement between 3 months and 1 yearmRS, RMI and/or BI improvement between 3 months and 1 year
aOR (95% CI)p>|z|aOR (95% CI)p>|z|aOR (95% CI)p>|z|aOR (95% CI)p>|z|
Lacunar stroke (vs non-lacunar)1.64 (1.17 to 2.31)0.0041.78 (1.20 to 2.64)0.0041.55 (1.06 to 2.26)0.0241.70 (1.26 to 2.28)0.001
Age0.97 (0.96 to 0.98)<0.00010.97 (0.95 to 0.98)<0.00010.98 (0.97 to 0.99)0.0010.99 (0.98 to 1.00)0.083
Male1.26 (0.96 to 1.66)0.0961.27 (0.94 to 1.71)0.1231.10 (0.83 to 1.46)0.520.98 (0.78 to 1.23)0.864
3-month mRS1=referenceNANANA
 24.68 (3.25 to 6.73)<0.0001
 32.60 (1.71 to 3.97)<0.0001
 44.03 (2.57 to 6.34)<0.0001
 52.90 (1.59 to 5.27)<0.0001
3-month RMINA0.96 (0.93 to 0.99)0.028NANA
3-month BINANA0.97 (0.95 to 1.00)0.042
Initial NIHSSNANANA1.02 (1.00 to 1.05)0.040
p>|X2| n<0.0001
1206
p>|X2| n<0.0001
752
p>|X2| n<0.0001
799
p>|X2| n0.001
1251
  • For the model examining improvement in any of the three scales, we adjusted for the initial stroke severity (NIHSS score). These models exclude patients who could not show improvement by definition, namely those with 3-month mRS=0 (n=137), 3-month RMI=15 (n=378) or 3-month BI=20 (n=674), with 93 patients meeting all three criteria.

  • aOR, adjusted OR; BI, Barthel Index; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; NA, not applicable; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; RMI, Rivermead Mobility Index.