Table 3

Association of clusters with variables not used in the cluster analysis, along with a p value derived from a hypothesis test that the variable is equally distributed (ie, same mean or same proportion) among the four clusters


Variable
Tracking Parkinson’s clustersDiscovery—clusters predicted from Tracking Parkinson’s model
P valuesTotal (N=1601)Cluster 1 (N=493, 30.8%)Cluster 2 (N=459, 28.7%)Cluster 3 (N=336, 21.0%)Cluster 4 (N=313, 19.6%)P valuesTotal (N=944)Cluster 1 (N=307, 32.5%)Cluster 2 (N=167, 17.7%)Cluster 3 (N=223, 23.6%)Cluster 4 (N=247, 26.2%)
Women*<0.001554 (34.6%)144 (29.2%)204 (44.4%)98 (29.2%)108 (34.5%)<0.001334 (35.4%)92 (30.0%)87 (52.1%)58 (26.0%)97 (39.3%)
Disease duration from diagnosis†<0.0011.3 (0.9)1.3 (0.9)1.2 (0.9)1.5 (0.9)1.4 (0.9)0.0021.2 (0.9)1.2 (0.9)1.1 (0.9)1.4 (0.9)1.2 (0.9)
Age diagnosis†<0.00165.9 (9.3)68.1 (8.1)62.6 (9.3)66.5 (9.8)66.7 (9.2)<0.00165.9 (9.6)67.6 (8.8)62.7 (9.4)67.0 (9.5)65.1 (10.2)
Age diagnosis <50* <0.00198 (6.1%)16 (3.2%)51 (11.1%)19 (5.7%)12 (3.8%)<0.00160 (6.4%)8 (2.6%)18 (10.8%)12 (5.4%)22 (8.9%)
UPDRS motor phenotype*
 Tremor dominant<0.001741 (48.0%)194 (40.8%)241 (54.9%)92 (28.3%)214 (70.6%)<0.001510 (54.7%)129 (43.0%)98 (59.0%)90 (40.7%)193 (78.5%)
 Indeterminate196 (12.7%)61 (12.8%)54 (12.3%)41 (12.6%)40 (13.2%)115 (12.3%)44 (14.7%)22 (13.3%)28 (12.7%)21 (8.5%)
 Postural instability gait difficulty606 (39.3%)221 (46.4%)144 (32.8%)192 (59.1%)49 (16.2%)308 (33.0%)127 (42.3%)46 (27.7%)103 (46.6%)32 (13.0%)
Hoehn and Yahr stage*
 0–1.5<0.001808 (51.4%)259 (53.6%)298 (66.2%)110 (33.4%)141 (45.5%)<0.001216 (23.0%)76 (24.9%)60 (35.9%)21 (9.5%)59 (24.0%)
 2–2.5685 (43.6%)211 (43.7%)147 (32.7%)181 (55.0%)146 (47.1%)660 (70.2%)208 (68.2%)103 (61.7%)178 (80.2%)171 (69.5%)
 379 (5.0%)13 (2.7%)5 (1.1%)38 (11.6%)23 (7.4%)64 (6.8%)21 (6.9%)4 (2.4%)23 (10.4%)16 (6.5%)
Untreated* <0.001149 (9.3%)33 (6.7%)69 (15.0%)12 (3.6%)35 (11.2%)0.001119 (12.6%)35 (11.4%)28 (16.8%)14 (6.3%)42 (17.0%)
LEDD total†<0.001293
(205)
304 (195)245 (202)361 (204)272 (203)<0.001282 (212)292 (196)242 (206)345 (225)241 (209)
LEDD total on medication†§<0.001324
(190)
327 (183)289 (188)375 (195)309 (188)<0.001327 (194)333 (173)293 (191)368 (213)297 (193)
Levodopa challenge†
 Percentage change0.00232.1 (22.8)30.6 (23.0)36.3 (24.0)31.9 (21.7)28.8 (20.9)0.0623.6 (15.2)22.1 (15.5)29.4 (16.7)23.4 (16.0)22.5 (12.3)
  • 2 test.

  • †Analysis of variance.

  • ‡Changed denominator where 80% or more of questions were answered.

  • §The LEDD restricted to those who are taking dopaminergic medication.

  • Cluster 1 is fast motor progression; cluster 2 is mild motor and non-motor disease; cluster 3 is severe motor disease, poor psychological well-beingand poor sleep; cluster 4 is slow motor progression.

  • LEDD, levodopa equivalent daily dose; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale.