Table 2

Results for outcome measures at baseline, week 3 and week 6 of the intervention*

ControlIntervention
Baseline (n=21)3 weeks6 weeksBaseline (n=20)3 weeks6 weeksRelative risk†Effect sizes with 95% CI‡
Fatigue
 Neuro-QoL25.86±1.2722.55±1.1822.95±1.5127.63±0.8824.21±1.2122.95±1.171.450.04 (−0.40 to 0.48)
Fatigability
AMIPB
 Incorrect1±21±11±20±10±10±1−0.13 (−0.34 to 0.09)
 Time53.83±3.8355.80±5.0052.43±3.4458.85±4.0157.66±4.0758.67±4.740.11 (−0.34 to 0.55)
 6 min walk344±17.67n/a354.5±19.29360.9±13.15n/a394.6±18.111.800.45 (0.18 to 1.07)
Numerical rating scale fatiguen/a35+1234+16n/a33+1831+18
Quality of life
 EQ5D-5L
 Mobility2±32±31.5±31±21±21±2−0.02 (−0.26 to 0.22)
 Self-care1±21±21±21±11±11±1−0.30 (−0.43 to 0.16)
 Usual activities2±32±22±32±22±22±2−0.12 (−0.33 to 0.11)
 Pain/ discomfort2±32±32±32±32±22±3−0.25 (−0.45 to 0.02)
 Anxiety/depression1±21±21±22±22±22±20.15 (−0.07 to 0.36)
Health today VAS67.71±3.3068.50±3.9874.15±3.5671.58±3.4871.95±3.2572.79±3.300.24 (−0.21 to 0.69)
HADS
 Depression5±84±74.5±94±55±75±70.09 (−0.15 to 0.33)
 Anxiety7.62±0.747.25±0.706.65±0.807.32±0.837.21±0.836.63±0.820.14 (−0.31 to 0.58)
PBMSI
 Walking2±22±21.5±21±21±21.5±2−0.15 (−0.35 to 0.07)
Fatigue2±22±22±22±22±22±2−0.12 (−0.29 to 0.06)
 Mood1±21±21±21±21±21±2−0.10 (−0.30 to 0.11)
 Concentration2±32±22±22±22±22±20.05 (−0.15 to 0.26)
 Roles/responsibility1±21±21±21±21±11±2−0.06 (−0.25 to 0.14)
Mechanism
Plasma
 Lipid peroxidation0.66±0.010.68±0.010.67±0.010.69±0.010.69±0.010.70±0.020.50 (0 to 0.99)
 TNFα0.12±0.010.12±0.010.10±0.010.13±0.010.11±0.010.11±0.010.01 (−0.22 to 0.23)
 Glutathione0.0043±0.00470.0045±0.00310.0035±0.00300.0034±0.00510.0035±0.00410.0060±0.00400.07 (−0.55 to 0.69)
  • *Values are means±SE for normally distributed values and medians±ranges (first to third quartile) for categorical data.

  • †Relative risks were calculated for measure of fatigue and fatigability for responders versus non-responders.

  • ‡Effect sizes and confidence intervals are Cohen’s d, based on non-central t distributions of least squares means differences for continuous variables, using SAS 9.4 and Cliff’s delta, for categorical variables, using R 3.5.

  • AMIPB, Adult Memory and Information Processing Battery; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; PBMSI, Preference-Based Multiple Sclerosis Index; QoL, qualify of life; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale.