Table 2

Total sodium concentrations in healthy controls and subjects grouped by clinical status at 15 years

Healthy controls
(n=34)
Patients with CIS
(n=18)
Patients with MS
All MS
(n=78)
RRMS
(n=65)
SPMS
(n=13)
Brain parenchymal fraction0.768
(0.009)
0.767
(0.008)
0.747*, †
(0.028)
0.751
(0.018)
0.731¶
(0.028)
Grey matter fraction0.458
(0.009)
0.453
(0.006)
0.445*, ‡
(0.014)
0.447
(0.012)
0.438¶
(0.014)
White matter fraction0.310
(0.011)
0.314
(0.010)
0.302*, †
(0.016)
0.303
(0.016)
0.293¶
(0.016)
T2 lesion volume, ml11.08
(12.00)
9.81
(11.60)
17.97¶
(12.28)
T1 lesion volume, ml2.54
(3.52)
1.90
(2.91)
5.87¶
(4.53)
23Na MRI
Cortical grey matter40.63 mM
(2.33)
40.68 mM
(1.74)
42.82 mM*
(3.53)
42.30 mM
(3.29)
45.45 mM**
(3.69)
Deep grey matter34.83 mM
(2.79)
36.13 mM
(1.69)
36.69 mM§
(3.74)
36.14 mM
(3.47)
39.47 mM**
(3.98)
Normal-appearing white matter32.03 mM
(3.44)
32.92 mM
(2.43)
34.85 mM§
(4.05)
34.43 mM
(3.95)
36.95 mM
(4.04)
White matter lesions
 All T2-hyperintense lesions45.58 mM
(8.53)
44.27 mM
(8.27)
51.99 mM¶
(6.92)
 T1-isointense lesions43.93 mM
(5.83)
42.87 mM
(7.04)
49.30 mM¶
(5.83)
 T1-hypointense lesions52.08 mM
(7.43)
51.02 mM
(11.56)
57.45 mM
(7.43)
  • All data presented as mean (SD).

  • *P<0.01 compared with healthy controls.

  • †P<0.01 compared with CIS;.

  • ‡P<0.05 compared with CIS.

  • §P<0.05 compared with healthy controls.

  • ¶P<0.01 compared with RRMS.

  • **P<0.05 compared with RRMS.

  • CIS, clinically isolated syndrome; MS, multiple sclerosis; RRMS, relapsing-remitting MS; SPMS, secondary progressive MS.