Table 1

Summary of risk factors for fatal suicide in the general population and their association with fatal suicide in persons with Parkinson’s disease13,26,27,s4,s10,s13,s31

Risk factors for suicide in the general populationStudies examining these risk factors (quality rating)Evidence trend in Parkinson’s disease
Male genderLee, 2016 (3); Myslobodsky, 2001 (3); Li, 2018 (1)Increased risk
European American ethnicityMyslobodsky, 2001 (3)Increased risk
Education levelMyslobodsky, 2001 (3)No effect
UnemploymentNoneNot studied
Single/Divorced/BereavedMyslobodsky, 2001 (3); Li, 2018 (1)No effect to decreased risk
Comorbid medical illnessLi, 2018 (1)Decreased risk
Depressive disorderLee, 2016 (3); Mainio, 2009 (3); Myslobodsky, 2001(3); Li, 2018 (1)Increased risk
Bipolar disorderMyslobodsky, 2001 (3)Increased risk
Alcohol/substance use disorderMainio, 2009 (3)Increased risk
PsychosisLee, 2016 (3)Increased risk
Personality disorderNoneNot studied
Anxiety disorderNoneNot studied
Multiple psychiatric disordersNoneNot studied
HopelessnessNoneNot studied
ImpulsivityNoneNot studied
History of self-harm or past suicide attemptMainio, 2009 (3)Increased risk
Access to lethal meansNoneNot studied
Stressful life eventsNoneNot studied
Childhood maltreatment/AbuseNoneNot studied
Alterations in serotonergic functionNoneNot studied
Hypothalamic-pituitary-axis abnormalitiesNoneNot studied
Epigenetic changesNoneNot studied
  • Quality rating of each study is included in parentheses after the study identifier.