Table 1

Study characteristics

StudyCountryStudy designPoweredComparatorSample size (n)Study attrition (%)Outcome measures (others)Data collection
Mills and& Allen et al 31 Wales (UK)RCTNoTAUn=2433%POMS, Standing balance, Symptom rating questionnaireBaseline, post, 3 months follow-up
Grossman et al 30 SwitzerlandRCTYesTAUn=1505%CES-D, STAI, MFIS, HAQUAMS, PQOLC, (Neuropsychology assessment, goal attainment)Baseline, post, 6 months follow-up
Bogosian et al 28 England (UK)RCTNoTAUn=405%GHQ, HADS, MSIS, FSSBaseline, post, 3 months follow-up
Kolahkaj and Zargar29 IranRCTYesTAUn=4817%DASS-21Baseline, post, 2 months follow-up
Amiri et al 25 IranRCTNoUnclearn=400%STAI, BDI-2, WCSTBaseline, post
Mahdavi et al 26 IranRCTNoUnclearn=240%BAI, BDI-2, FSS, MWQ, TFIBaseline, post
Nejati et al 27 IranRCTUnclearUnclearn=240%MSQOL-54, FSSBaseline, post
Bahrani et al 23 IranRCTYesTAUn=5616%DASS-21Baseline, post
Simpson et al 22 Scotland (UK)RCTNoTAUn=5012%PSS, EQ5D5L, MSQLI, MAAS, SCS-sf, ELQBaseline, post, 3 months follow-up
Carletto et al 24 ItalyRCTYesPsycho-education interventionn=9021%BDI-2, BAI, PSS, BIPQ, FAMSBaseline, post-BAM, 6 months post-BAM
Cavalera et al 32 ItalyRCTYesPsycho-education interventionn=13939%MSQOL-54, HADS, MOSS, MFIS,Baseline, post-, 6 months post MBI
Senders et al 21 USARCTYesEducational control, matched for time and attentionn=6216%PSS, PROMIS, CD-RISC, PASATBaseline, mid-intervention, immediately post-, 4, 8 and 12 months post-MBI
  • BAI, Beck anxiety inventory; BAM, body-affective mindfulness; BDI-2, Beck depression inventory-2; BIPQ, Brief illness perception questionnaire; CD-RISC, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale; CES-D, Center for epidemiological studies depression scale; DASS-21, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21; ELQ, Emotional lability questionnaire; EQ-5D-5L, EuroQol; FAMS, Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis; FSS, Fatigue severity scale; GHQ, General health questionnaire; HADS, Hospital anxiety and depression scale; HAQUAMS, Hamburg quality of life questionnaire in multiple sclerosis (German); MAAS, Mindful attention awareness scale; MFIS, Modified fatigue impact scale; MOSS, Medical Outcomes Sleep Scale; MSIS, Multiple sclerosis impact scale; MSQLI, Multiple sclerosis quality of life inventory; MSQOL-54, Multiple sclerosis quality of life – 54; MWQ, Meta worry questionnaire; PASAT, Paced Auditory Serial Attention Task; POMS, Profile of mood states; PQOLC, Profile of health related quality of life in chronic disorders (German); PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Information System; PSS, Perceived stress scale; RCT, Randomised controlled trial; SCS-sf, Self-compassion scale-short form; STAI, Spielberger trait anxiety inventory; TAU, Treatment as usual; TFI, Thought fusion inventory; WCST, Wisconsin card sorting test.