Table 1

Clinical features of patients with self-reported FAS

MeasureAllProbably functional (n=35)Possibly structural (n=4)Probably structural (n=10)
Features
female:male:other42:6:132:2:14:0:06:4:0
Mean age, years (SD, range)49 (11, 24–72)46 (10, 24–67)50 (5, 43–54)57 (11, 40–72)
Median symptom duration, years (range)3.25 (0.2–18)2.67 (0.17–18)3.13 (2.67–4.75)8.33 (0.50–16.67)
Structural lesion identified on investigation5 (10%)005 (50%)
Sudden onset23 (67%)21 (60%)2 (50%)10 (100%)
Gradual onset16 (33%)14 (40%)2 (50%)0
Event at onset n (%)*
 Migraine or severe headache15 (30)14 (40)01 (10)
 Stroke11 (22)1 (2)2 (50)8 (80)
 Physical injury or surgery to mouth, face or jaw9 (18)8 (16)1 (25)0
 Head injury with loss of consciousness3 (6)2 (4)01 (10)
 Seizure or non-epileptic seizure/attack5 (10)5 (10)00
 Dissociative seizure/non-epileptic attack3 (6)3 (6)00
 Epileptic seizure1 (2)1 (2)00
 Uncertain/seizures are under investigation1 (2)1 (2)00
 Stress/‘mental breakdown’3 (6)3 (6)00
 Other physical injury2 (4)2 (4)00
 No obvious trigger1 (2)01 (25)0
 Other (viral infection, other surgery, spider bite, ‘blinding light’)4 (8)4 (8)00
Positive features of functional FAS:
 Periods of remission23 (47)18 (51)1 (25)4 (40)
 Ability to copy other accents8 (16)7 (20)01 (10)
 Behavioural features associated with a stereotype15 (43)12 (34)03 (30)
Changes in grammar and style of writing16 (32)9 (26)2 (50)5 (50)
Speech recording provided131003
Functional features identified in speech analysis8800
  • *Some reported >1 simultaneous event at onset.

  • FAS, foreign accent syndrome.