Table 1

Comparison between visits

Visit 1 (V1)Visit 2 (V2)p value
Age (years)54.76 (±9.7; 34–72)61.7 (±10.2; 37–81) <0.001*
ICBs46 (100%)27 (58.7%) <0.001†
Multiple ICBs27 (58.7%) N=4616 (59.2%) N=270.754†
Types of ICBsDDS=6
CSB=23
PG=13
CS=17
CE=11
Punding=23
DDS=3
CSB=13
PG=5
CS=5
CE=14
Punding=18
0.508†
0.052†
0.008†
0.008†
0.629†
0.359†
UPDRS III16.22 (±7.87; 4–37)34.65 (±11.01; 12–61) <0.001*
Dyskinesias29 (63%)38 (82.6%) 0.022†
Cognitive impairment2 (4.3%)15 (32.6%) 0.001†
Depression14 (30.4%)11 (23.9%)0.629†
Anxiety8 (17.4%)15 (32.6%)0.118†
Hallucinations10 (21.7%)12 (26.1%)0.754†
Use of levodopa41 (89.1%)44 (95.6%)0.375†
Use of DA42 (91.3%)18 (39.1%) <0.001†
DA typePramipexole=27
Ropinirole=12
Rotigotine=1
Bromocriptine=1
Cabergoline=1
Pramipexole=8
Ropinirole=3
Rotigotine=7
Use of MAOi8 (17.4%)28 (60.9%) <0.001†
Use of Amantadine16 (34.8%)37 (80.4%) <0.001†
Levodopa dose713.75 (±487.33; 150–2400 n=411021.91 (±437.5; 200–2222 n=44 0.001‡
DA LEDD255.6 (±113; 52–600) n=42153.44 (±86.9; 40–360) n=18 0.003‡
Total LEDD979.65 (±542.8; 300–27101296.60 (±457.7; 257–2528 < 0.001
Infusion therapiesApomorphine – 1 (2.1%)Apomorphine: 6.5% (N=3)
Duodopa: 2.17% (N=1)
DBS011 (23.9%)
STN=10; GPi=1
  • Rating Scale. Results are expressed in total values with proportion, or mean values with SD and range.

  • Significant results after Bonferroni correction in bold.

  • *paired t-test.

  • †McNemar’s test.

  • ‡Wilcoxon matched pairs.

  • CS, compulsive shopping; CSB, compulsive sexual behaviour; DA, oral or transcutaneous dopamine agonists; DBS, deep brain stimulation; DDS, dopamine dysregulation syndrome; GPi, globus pallidus internus; ICBs, impulsive compulsive behaviours; LEDD, levodopa equivalent daily dose as described by Tomlinson et al, 2010; MAOi, monoamine oxidase inhibitors; PG, pathological gambling; STN, subthalamic nucleus; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s Disease.