Table 1

Predominant cytokine algesic and analgesic neural mediators

Algesic mediators and cell originsAnalgesic mediators and cell origins
Immune cells Immune cells
Mast cells: hist, 5-HT, LTs, TNF, IL6
Neutrophils: ROS, TNF, IL-1
Macrophages: TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-15, IL-18, CatS
Lymphocytes (Th1/17): TNG, IFN-γ, IL-17
Mast cells: IL-4, IL-10
Neutrophils: endorphin/enkephalin
Lymphocytes: IL-4, IL-10 (Th2), B7-H1 (T cells), TNF-6, IFN
Glial cells Glial cells
Schwann cells: MMP9, TNF, IL-1β, PGE2, ATP, NGF-β
Satellite glia: TNF, IL-1β, NGF- β, CGRP
Microglia: TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, NO, PGE2, BDNF, LTs
Astrocytes: ATP, NO, glutamate, PGs, TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, CCL 2,5,7, CXCL 1,2
Schwann cells: Epo, GDNF
Satellite glia: GDNF
Microglia: GDNF, IGF-1
Astrocytes: GDNF
Fractalkine, MCP-1, MIP-1m
Complement system
C3, C5a
  • Modified with permission from Austin PJ et al. Journal of Neuroimmunology 2010.9

  • ATP, adenosine triphosphate; BDNF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor; CatS, cathepsin S; CCL2, 5, 7, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2; CXCL 1, 2, (C-X-C motif) ligands 1 and 2; Epo, erythropoietin; GDNF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor; hist, histamine; IFN-γ, interferon-γ; IGF-1, insulin growth factor-1; IL, interleukin; LT, leukotriene; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MIP-1α, macrophage inflammatory protein-α; MMP9, matrix metalloproteinase 9; NGF-β, nerve growth factor-β; NO, nitric oxide; PG, prostaglandin; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; 5-HT, serotonin.