Table 1

Characteristics of 51 studies included in the meta-analysis

First author, year *Design, cohort name, countryObservationSample for analysis/casesMean age; femaleOutcomeType of sleep disorders
Suh, 2018South Korea4y (max)2,238/26568.1; 54%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Sindi, 2018Sweden9y (max)437/1970; 60%DementiaInsomnia and sleep duration
Sweden9y (max)306/12283.9; 85%
Finland21y (mean); 26y (max)1,409/6150.2; 62%
10y (mean)703/4470.2; 65%
Ohara, 2018Japan8.8y (mean); 10y (max)1,497/29470; 56%DementiaSleep duration
Nakakubo, 2018Japan4y (max)2,096/28071; 53%Cognitive declineSleep duration; excessive daytime sleepiness
Lysen, 2018Netherlands8.5y (mean)4,835/420 dementia (320 AD)71.9; 58%Dementia; ADSleep quality; PSQI components
Lutsey, 2018USA14.9y (median); 17.5y (max)1,083 for apnoea; 1,653 for sleep duration/14562.7; 53%DementiaApnoea; sleep duration
Lu, 2018Japan5.7y (mean)7,422/68874.7; 56%DementiaSleep duration
Li, 2018USA11y (max); 4.6y (mean)1,097/22081.0; 77%ADSleep quality
11y (max); 3.4 (mean)855/34480.1; 79%MCI
Li, 2018USAmax >30y2,461/22751; 50%DementiaSleep duration
Larsson, 2018Sweden12.6y (mean)28,775/3,75571.6; 47%ADSleep duration
Burke, 2018USA4.24y (mean)9,184/36171; 65%Probable ADSleep disturbance
Westwood, 2017USA10y (max)2,457/234 dementia (181 AD)72; 57%Dementia; ADSleep duration
Sung, 2017China-Taiwan10y (max)184,158/5,30149; 65%DementiaNonapnoea sleep disorders
Chang, 2013China-Taiwan4.78 to 4.93y (mean)8,484/199Mixed; 41%DementiaSleep apnoea
Reijs, 2017Finland2.4y (mean)353/na70.6; 59%ADSleep problem
Pase, 2017USA12y (mean); 19y (max)321/32 dementia (24 AD)67; 50%Dementia; ADPercentage of REM sleep
Luojus, 2017Finland21.9y (mean)2,386/287 dementia (234 AD)53; 0%Dementia; ADSleep disturbance
Gabelle, 2017France1y (max)479/6374; 68%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Bokenberger, 2017Sweden17.7y (max); 14.3y (median)11,247/1,84472.5; naDementiaSleep characteristics
Niu, 2016China1y (max)1,010/16169.8; 65%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Ding, 2016USA/Canada5.7y (mean)7,547/31067.5; 0%DementiaSleep apnoea
Diem, 2016USA4.9y (mean)1,245/290 MCI and 183 dementia82.6; 100%Dementia or MCISleep characteristics
Yaffe, 2011USA4.7y (mean)298/60 MCI and 47 dementia82.3; 100%Dementia or MCISleep characteristics
Chen, 2016USA7.3–7.7 (mean)7,444/80270.1; 100%Cognitive declineSleep duration
Yaffe, 2015USA8y (max)179,738/21,784 dementia (4,107 AD and 2,715 VD)66.9–68.5; 0%Dementia and its subtypesSeries of sleep problems
Tsapanou, 2015USA3y (max)1,041/7879.3; 69.8%DementiaSeries of sleep problems
Martin, 2015France7.8y (mean)559/na67.0; 60.3%Attentional declineSBD
Lin, 2015China-Taiwan5y (max)3,020/166Mixed; 43.7%Dementia and its subtypesSleep-related movement disorders
Chiu, 2015China-Taiwan7y (max)5,960/88Mixed; 49%DementiaInsomnia
Song, 2015USA3.4y (mean)2,601/48476.0; 0%Cognitive declineSleep stage duration
Blackwell, 2015USA3.4y (mean)2,636/48476.0; 0%Cognitive declineSBD
Blackwell, 2014USA3.4y (mean)2,822/48476.0; 0%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Benedict, 2015Sweden40y (max)1,574/270 dementia (119 pure AD and 61 VD)49.6; 0%Dementia and its subtypesSleep disturbances
Hahn, 2014Sweden9y (max)214/61 dementia (47 AD)83.4; 80.4%Dementia and its subtypesSleep pattern change
Virta, 2013Finland22.6y (mean)1,326/179Midlife; 47.9%ADSleep characteristics
Sterniczuk, 201312 countries in Europe4.3y (mean)17,656/30063.9; 55.5%DementiaSleep characteristics
Peters, 2013USA3.3y (mean)230/61 dementia (47 AD)81.9; 50%Dementia and its subtypesNighttime behaviours
Lim, 2013USA6y (max); 3.3y (mean)737/9781.6; 76%ADSleep fragmentation
Benito-Leon, 2013Spain3.4y (mean)2,715/na72.9; 57%Cognitive declineSleep duration
Benito-León, 2009Spain3.2y (median)3,286/14072.9; 57%Dementia and its subtypesSleep duration
Potvin, 2012Canada1y (max)1,664/68 women+37 men74.4; 69.7%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Keage, 2012Canada10y (max)604/na75; 53%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Jaussent, 2012France8y (max)4,898/697Range=65–85; 57%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Boot, 2012USA3.8y (median)651 at least one follow-up/10477; 30%MCIRBD
Osorio, 2011USA7.7y (mean)346/25Range: 24–96; 64%ADInsomnia
Elwood, 2011UK10y (max)1,225/49 AD and 44 VD61.5; 0%AD and VDSleep characteristics
Lobo, 2008Spain2y (max)3,244/82 dementia (47 AD and 208 MCI)73.6; 55.2%Dementia; AD; MCISleep problems
Tworoger, 2006USA1.8y (mean)1,844/na74; 100%Cognitive declineSleep characteristics
Foley, 2001USA3y (max)2,346/19176.6; 0%DementiaSleep characteristics
2,242/482Cognitive decline
Cricco, 2001USA3y (max)2,429/61972; naCognitive declineInsomnia
Quesnot, 1999France4y (max)1,389/184Range: 59–71; 58.7%Cognitive declineSnoring and excessive daytime sleepiness
  • *The full reference list can be found in online supplementary appendix 3.

  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; LCI, Lower Confidence Interval; MCI, Mild Cognitive Impairment; na, Not Applicable; PSQI, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; RBD, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavioural Disorder; REM, Rapid Eye Movement; REMR, Robust Error Meta-regression; SBD, Sleep Breathing Disorders; UCI, Upper Confidence Interval; VD, Vascular Dementia; y, year.