Table 2

Demographics table for poor and normal visual performers

MeasurePoor vision
Normal vision
P value
Gender (M:F)20:1429:34ns
Age (years)67.97 (7.18)62.27 (7.20)***
Years of education17.99 (2.74)16.44 (2.75)**
MOCA score (max. 30)27.27 (2.35)28.37 (1.68)**
UPDRS-III24.59 (13.83)21.18 (10.13)ns
Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity1.70 (.16)1.85 (.14)***
Binocular LogMAR visual acuity−0.05 (.14)−0.11 (.12)ns
D15 hue discrimination total error score1.45 (3.99)3.26 (5.32)ns
HADS depression score4.94 (3.33)3.27 (2.31)ns
HADS anxiety score6.06 (4.15)6.02 (4.16)ns
RBDSQ score4.03 (2.11)4.19 (2.64)ns
Smell test (Sniffin’ Sticks)8.44 (3.14)7.32 (3.24)ns
Disease duration (years)4.85 (2.91)3.71 (2.16)*
Levodopa equivalent dose (mg)516.15 (222.09)422.78 (272.84)ns
  • Pelli-Robson: higher score is better contrast sensitivity. Binocular LogMAR: lower score is better visual acuity. D15: lower score is better colour discrimination.

  • ***p<0.001; **p<0.01; *p<0.05.

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; ns, not significant; RBDSQ, REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep Behaviour Disorder Screening Questionnaire; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale.