Table 1

Demographics table for participants

Parkinson’s disease
P value
Gender (M:F)16:2152:48ns
Age (years)66.1 (9.4)64.5 (7.7)ns
Years of education17.18 (2.35)17.04 (2.84)ns
MoCA score (out of 30)28.6 (1.4)28.0 (2.0)ns
Cats-and-Dogs score2.10 (0.58)1.91 (0.55)ns
Biological motion score14.68 (9.65)16.46 (11.49)ns
UPDRS-III5.5 (4.7)18.9 (13.3)***
Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity1.81 (0.22)1.80 (0.16)ns
Binocular LogMAR visual acuity−0.08 (0.23)−0.09 (0.13)ns
D15 hue discrimination total error score2.22 (6.46)2.60 (4.93)ns
HADS depression score1.86 (2.12)3.78 (2.81)ns
HADS anxiety score3.97 (3.48)5.94 (4.12)*
RBDSQ score1.84 (1.42)4.14 (2.45)***
Smell test (Sniffin’ Sticks)12.43 (2.44)7.65 (3.21)***
Disease duration (years)N/A4.2 (2.5)na
Levodopa equivalent dose (mg)N/A457 (258)na
Motor deficit dominance (left, right, both)N/A41: 54: 5na
  • Means (SDs) reported.

  • Sleep Behaviour Disorder Screening Questionnaire. Pelli-Robson: higher score is better contrast sensitivity. Binocular LogMAR: lower score is better visual acuity. D15: lower score is better colour discrimination.

  • ***p<0.001; *p<0.05.

  • HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; ns, not significant; RBDSQ, REM (rapid eye movement) Sleep Behaviour Disorder Screening Questionnaire; UPDRS-III, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part 3.