Table 1

Studies examining the effects of fornix lesions in rodents, non-human primates and humans, along with associated behavioural deficits

StudySpeciesForniceal lesion locationBehavioural deficits
Nilsson et al 1987RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment
Aggleton et al 23 RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment but no recognition memory impairment
Waburton and Aggleton 1999RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment but no recognition memory impairment
Howard et al 1989RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment
Jeltsch et al 1994RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment
Fletcher et al 2006RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment
Mala et al 2013RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment
Ennaceur et al 1997RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment but no recognition memory impairment
Waburton et al 2000RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixSpatial memory impairment but no recognition memory impairment
Phillips and LeDoux 1995RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixContextual fear conditioning impairment
Maren and Fanselow 1997RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixContextual fear conditioning impairment
Antoniadis and McDonald 2006RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixContextual fear conditioning impairment
Laurent-Demir and Jaffard 2000RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixNo impairment in acoustic fear conditioning
Baldi et al 2013RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixNo impairment in acoustic fear conditioning
Baldi et al 1998RatPost-commissural dorsal fornixDeficit in encoding but not retrieval in passive avoidance learning
Sziklas and Petrides 2002RatPre-commissural fornixSpatial memory impairment but no impairment with a visual cue
Saunders et al 2005MonkeyFornix bodyImpaired visual recognition
Wilson et al 2007MonkeyFornix bodyImpairment in object discrimination
Buckley et al 2008MonkeyFornix bodyImpairment of encoding but no recall of visuospatial memory
Kwok and Buckley 2010MonkeyFornix bodyImpaired encoding of rapidly learnt visuospatial discrimination
Adamovich et al 2009HumanBilateral anterior columns of fornixRetrograde and anterograde amnesia
Baweja et al 2015HumanBilateral anterior columns of fornixRetrograde and anterograde amnesia
Cameron et al 1981HumanLeft anterior column of fornixVerbal memory deficit
Korematsu et al 2010HumanLeft anterior column of fornixRetrograde and anterograde amnesia
Vann et al 2008HumanAnterior column of fornixAnterograde amnesia but spared recognition memory
Gupta et al 2015HumanLeft anterior column and fornix bodyRetrograde and anterograde amnesia
Hodges et al 1991HumanAnterior genu of fornixAnterograde amnesia
McMakin et al 1996HumanAnterior genu of fornixAnterograde amnesia
Murr et al 2012HumanAnterior genu of fornixAnterograde amnesia
Rizek et al 2013HumanAnterior genu of fornixAnterograde amnesia
Kauppila et al 2018HumanAnterior genu of fornixAnterograde verbal memory
Chen et al 2008HumanFornix bodyAnterograde amnesia
Carota et al 2013HumanCrura and body of the fornixAnterograde amnesia
Tucker et al 1988HumanLeft fornix bodyAnterograde amnesia
Yeo et al 2013HumanCrura of the fornixAnterograde amnesia