Table 1

Existing outcome measures developed for use in functional neurological disorder

Study detailsMeasureDescription of measure
Cianci et al (Italy)34 Rating scale for functional ‘psychogenic non-epileptic’ seizures (clinician-rated)Motor phenomena (tremor/oscillation, tonic, clonic/jerking, hypermotor/agitation, atonic/akinetic and automatisms)
Associated features (incontinence, tongue-biting, drooling, eye closure, hyperventilation and lamenting/crying)
Responsiveness
13 body regions
Ratings: present/absent, severity, duration, global severity by phenomenon
Total phenomenology, total associated features and total seizure scores
Hinson et al
(USA)32
PMDRS (clinician-rated)Motor phenomena (rest tremor, action tremor, dystonia, chorea, bradykinesia, myoclonus, tics, athetosis, ballism and cerebellar incoordination)
Functions (gait and speech)
14 body regions
Ratings: present/absent, severity, duration, global severity and incapacitation by phenomenon/function (0–4 scale)
Total phenomenology, total function and total PMDRS score
Ijaz et al
(Pakistan)36
CDS-R (patient-rated)40 items (phenomena): five factors identified (swallowing/speech, motor, sensory, weakness/fatigue and mixed)
Ratings: 0–2 (not at all, sometimes and most of the time) for each item
CDS-R total scores (clinical cut-off score of 19)
Nielsen et al (UK)33 S-FMDRS (clinician-rated)Seven body regions
Two functions (speech and gait)
Ratings: presence/absence of abnormal movement, severity and duration (0–3 scale)
Total S-FMDRS score
Sarfraz and Ijaz
(Pakistan)35
CDS (patient-rated)19 items (phenomena): three factors (disability, pain and seizures)
  • CDS, Conversion Disorder Scale; CDS-R, Conversion Disorder Scale—Revised; PMDRS, Psychogenic Movement Disorder Rating Scale; S-FMDRS, Simplified Functional Movement Disorders Rating Scale.