Table 2

Demographic, medical and clinical characteristics at the time of dementia diagnosis

CTEADP value
Total #M±SDTotal #M±SD
 Age of dementia onset669.2±11.02572.8±7.30.59
 Age of dementia diagnosis680.3±5.42579.1±6.10.51
 Age of death684.7±7.22582.8±7.20.82
 Education, years615.8±2.02416.4±2.90.60
 Sex, male, %610025100
 Race, Caucasian, %683.325920.10
Medical history
 Diabetes, n (%)61 (25)243 (12)0.79
 Hypertension, n (%)64 (67)248 (32)0.01*
 Hypercholesterolemia, n (%)63 (50)2311 (44)0.58
 B12 deficiency, n (%)60 (0)241 (4.2)0.61
 Myocardial infarction, n (%)61 (16.7)244 (16.7)1.00
 Atrial fibrillation, n (%)61 (16.7)242 (8.3)0.54
 Cardiac bypass, n (%)61 (16.7)240 (0)0.04†
 Heart failure, n (%)60 (0)240 (0)
 Stroke, >1 year ago, n (%)61 (16.7)240 (0)0.04†
 TBI with LOC,6230.49
 Within 1 year, n (%)0 (0)1 (4.2)
 ≥1 year ago, n (%)1 (16.7)1 (4.2)
 Seizures, n (%)61 (16.7)240 (0)0.04†
Emotional measures
 GDS total score51.6±1.5222.2±2.10.20
 NPI total score54.5±4.3255.9±6.20.80
Neuropsychological scores
 Digit Span Forwards56.2±0.4225.8±1.30.51
 Digit Span Backwards54.0±0.7213.6±0.80.29
 Trail Making Test Part A541.0±11.11971.7±46.80.17
 Trail Making Test Part B5200.0±93.713180.8±81.90.67
 Semantic Fluency512.4±5.02210.5±5.40.47
 Boston Naming Test524.4±3.01918.1±8.80.13
 Logical Memory I55.0±3.8194.5±3.60.80
 Logical Memory II52.0±2.5192.9±4.50.66
  • *Difference between the groups statistically significant (p<0.05).

  • †Statistically significant difference (p<0.05), but results may be unstable given only 1 CTE case had the condition. Neuropsychological scores reflect raw scores.

  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; CDR, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale; CTE, chronic traumatic encephalopathy; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; LOC, loss of consciousness; M, mean; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Exam; NPI, Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire; SD, standard deviation; TBI, traumatic brain injury; Total #, the total number of cases examined for each factor; UPDRS, Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale.