Table 1

Operationalised forms and corresponding definitions of SIB for standardised counting of different descriptions (exemplary SIB forms) registered in the literature

Form of SIBOperational definitionExemplary forms of SIB
HittingMovement of hand or body part down onto and striking other body partsHitting body part with hands, self-punching, self-hitting, self-slapping, self-striking
BangingForceful movement of body part, possibly outside the physiological range of motion, with or without contact of object surfaceHead banging, elbow banging, banging against objects, head jerking tic, hyperextending knees, stomping tic
BitingEnclosing body part between teeth with subsequent scrunching or cutting motionSelf-biting, self-chewing
PokingPressing fingers onto or drilling finger(s) into another body partEye-gouging, eye-poking, eye-pinching, pressing on eyeballs
PenetrativePenetration and disintegration of skin, mucous membranes, or natural body orifices with objectsSelf-stabbing, self-penetration with objects, inserting objects into wounds, piercing of tongue with sharp objects
Picking/scratchingUsing fingernail(s) to scratch and disintegrate skin surfaceSelf-picking, skin-picking, skin-scratching, self-scratching, self-pinching
BurningUsing heat to cause burn injuries to any kind of body partSelf-burning with cigarette ends, putting body parts into boiling water, putting body parts into frying pans
PullingGrasping motion and subsequent yanking of skin appendages/body parts/devices with fingersTrichotillomania, pulling eyebrows, attempts to pull out tongue, pulling out of catheters, teeth extraction, nail yanking
Rubbing/grindingAbrasive scrubbing of body part against each otherLip rubbing, rubbing hands, teeth grinding
AmputationalDisintegrating body parts with sharp objectsAttempt to sever arm with knife, attempt to cut-off genitals, throat cutting
SwallowingIngestion of dangerous substances or body parts to cause internal injuryIngestion of dangerous liquids, putting objects/body parts into throat, attempt for self-intoxication
OthersNot belonging in any of the other categoriesSelf-induced gagging, self-strangulation, forced Valsalva manoeuvre, self-dropping to ground, putting finger into wheelchair spokes
Not otherwise specifiedInconclusive descriptions or missing reportsSelf-hurting, self-mutilation, self-mutilative behaviour, self-destructive behaviour, self-injury, movements with self-hurting consequence, self-inflicted lesions, producing wounds, not reported, SIB
  • SIB, self-injurious behaviour.