Table 3

Generalised linear models for the association of functional improvement per the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and/or Barthel Index (BI) between 3 months and 1 year poststroke, with 5-year health and social care costs, adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype (lacunar vs non-lacunar) and 3-month score on the relevant measure, in 1-year survivors of ischaemic stroke

mRS improvement between 3 and 12 monthsRMI improvement between
3 and 12 months
BI and/or RMI improvement between 3 and 12 monthsmRS, RMI and/or BI improvement between 3 and 12 months
Margin, US$ (95% CI)P>|z|Margin, US$ (95% CI)P>|z|Margin, US$ (95% CI)P>|z|Margin, US$ (95% CI)P>|z|
Late functional improvement −17 370 (−25 271 to −9469)<0.001−11 701 (−20 687 to −2716)0.011−9411 (−18 239 to −583)0.037−6627 (−12 648 to −606)0.031
Age 796 (505 to 1086)<0.001736 (323 to 1149)<0.001827 (417 to 1237)<0.001801 (526 to 1076)<0.001
Male sex −4558 (−10 598 to 1481)0.14−317 (−8881 to 8247)0.94−7153 (−15 702 ot 1296)0.10−5295 (−11 111 to 521)0.074
Lacunar stroke −4972 (−12 331 to 2386)0.19−7810 (−18 to 406 to 2786)0.15−6372 (−17 196 to 3733)0.21−5833 (−12 907 to 1242)0.11
3-month mRS 1=ReferenceN/AN/A
2 4515 (621 to 8409)0.0236597 (879 to 12 315)0.024
3 20 257 (12 733 to 27 782)<0.00124 080 (15 149 to 33 012)<0.001
4 47 670 (30 062 to 65 331)<0.00146 624 (29 752 to 63 497)<0.001
5 85 725 (41 303 to 130 147)<0.00181 352 (40 034 to 122 669)<0.001
3-month RMI N/A−4925 (−6546 to −3304)<0.001N/AN/A
3-month BI N/AN/A−3658 (−4988 to −2329)<0.001N/A
n973n606n644n1006
  • These models exclude patients without full 5 years of follow-up (n=173), those who were already living in a nursing or residential care home prestroke (n=30), and those who could not show improvement by definition for the respective model that is, with 3-month mRS=0, 3-month RMI=15 or 3-month BI=20.

  • N/A, not applicable.