Table 2

Cox regression models for the association of functional improvement per the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and/or Barthel Index (BI) between 3 months and 1-year poststroke, with 5-year mortality/institutionalisation, adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype (lacunar vs non-lacunar) and 3-month score on the relevant measure, in 1-year survivors of ischaemic stroke

Hazard for 5-year mortality/institutionalisation
mRS improvement between 3 and 12 monthsRMI improvement between
3 and 12 months
BI and/or RMI improvement between 3 and 12 monthsmRS, RMI, and/or BI improvement between 3 and 12 months
aHR (95% CI)P>|z|aHR (95% CI)P>|z|aHR (95% CI)P>|z|aHR (95% CI)P>|z|
Late functional improvement 0.59 (0.46 to 0.76)<0.0010.63 (0.50 to 0.80)<0.0010.73 (0.58 to 0.92)0.0080.74 (0.61 to 0.91)0.004
Age 1.08 (1.07 to 1.09)<0.0011.08 (1.06 to 1.09)<0.0011.08 (1.07 to 1.10)<0.0011.08 (1.07 to 1.10)<0.001
Male sex 1.12 (0.91 to 1.38)0.271.22 (0.96 to 1.56)0.111.09 (0.86 to 1.38)0.461.11 (0.90 to 1.36)0.34
Lacunar stroke 0.67 (0.50 to 0.90)0.0080.62 (0.44 to 0.88)0.0070.62 (0.44 to 0.87)0.0060.66 (0.49 to 0.89)0.006
3 months mRS 1=ReferenceN/AN/A
2 1.40 (1.01 to 1.94)0.0441.76 (0.77 to 4.05)0.18
3 2.96 (2.19 to 4.01)<0.0013.82 (1.68 to 8.69)0.001
4 4.12 (2.96 to 5.75)<0.0014.98 (2.17 to 11.5)<0.001
5 8.91 (6.07 to 13.1)<0.00110.8 (4.6 to 25.3)<0.001
3-month RMI N/A0.88 (0.86 to 0.90)<0.001N/AN/A
3-month BI N/AN/A0.89 (0.88 to 0.91)<0.001N/A
p>|X2| n<0.0001
1135
p>|X2| n<0.0001
706
p>|X2| n<0.0001
747
p>|X2| n<0.0001
1179
  • These models exclude patients who were already living in a nursing or residential care home pre-stroke and alive at 5 years (n=5) and those who could not show improvement by definition that is, with 3-month mRS=0 (n=135), 3-month RMI=15 (n=369) or 3-month BI=20 (n=661), with 91 patients meeting all three criteria.

  • N/A, not applicable.