Table 2

Cognitive test performance

TaskControlbvFTDFTD-ALSbvFTD vs controlFTD-ALS vs controlbvFTD vs FTD-ALS
nMedian (range)nMedian (range)nMedian (range)zP valuezP valuezP value
Graded naming/303023 (18–29)2316 (0–27)1811 (1–25)−4.7<0.001−4.9<0.001−0.70.46
Object name/503050 (49–50)2345 (6–50)1147 (34–50)−5.1<0.001−4.7<0.001−0.70.48
Action name/503050 (46–50)2247 (6–50)1149 (27–50)−4.8<0.001−3.40.001−0.90.39
Pyramids palm trees pictures/523051 (49–52)2247.5 (20–51)1849 (23–52)−4.9<0.001−3.50.001−0.50.65
Pyramids palm trees words/523052 (50–52)2249 (22–52)1749 (21–52)−5.0<0.001−4.3<0.001−0.20.85
PALPA spelling/403039 (30–40)2231.5 (0–40)1424 (4–40)−4.0<0.001−3.8<0.001−0.80.42
PALPA sentence comprehension/243024 (23–24)2219.5 (9–24)1322 (11–24)−4.9<0.001−4.6<0.001−0.70.51
Sentence ordering/103010 (7–10)218 (0–10)163.5 (0–10)−4.8<0.001−5.0<0.001−1.80.07
Letter fluency index*298.7 (5.7–25.3)2031.8 (11.6–177)1439 (21–195)−5.4<0.001−5.1<0.001−1.10.29
Category fluency index*293.8 (2.7–6.4)218.9 (3.9–117)1421 (6–60)−5.4<0.001−5.3<0.001−2.00.04
DKEFS block sorting/8305 (2–7)202 (0–6)121.5 (0–6)−4.8<0.001−4.0<0.001−0.40.66
Brixton errors/54*3014 (2–25)1816.5 (10–37)1126 (10–37)−2.50.01−3.10.02−1.40.17
Hayling connected response time*304 (0–20)2117 (0–60)1018 (1–60)−3.8<0.001−3.6<0.001−0.80.42
Hayling unconnected response time*3015.5 (0–60)2143 (5–60)1041 (12–60)−3.7<0.001−3.20.001−0.10.90
Hayling inhibition accuracy scaled score/8307 (6–8)211 (1–7)101 (1–6)−5.4<0,.001−4.8<0.001−1.00.33
Judgement of preference errors300 (0–1)221.5 (0–22)120.5 (0–21)−3.8<0.001−3.7<0.001−0.90.66
Ekman faces3051 (43–57)2231 (9–53)1426 (14–53)−5.7<0.001−4.4<0.001−0.420.67
  • DKEFS: Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System battery

  • *Higher scores represent greater impairment.

  • ALS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; bvFTD, behavioural variant FTD; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; PALPA, Psycholinguistic Assessment of Language Processing in Aphasia.