Table 1

Demographic, clinical, laboratory characteristics and clinical management of neurological patients evaluated at the ED

Total
(N=505)
non-COVID-19
(n=358)
COVID-19
(n=147)
P value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
 Age (years)64.4±17.665.1±18.973.1±12.4<0.0001
 Sex0.92
 Female255 (50.5%)180 (50.3%)75 (51.0%)
 Male250 (49.5%)178 (49.7%)72 (49.0%)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension290 (57.4%)216 (60%)74 (50.9%)0.09
 Diabetes97 (19.2%)62 (17.3%)35 (23.8%)0.08
 Coronary heart disease62 (12.3%)40 (11.2%)22 (15.2%)0.31
 Chronic kidney disease21 (4.1%)16 (4.5%)5 (3.5%)0.79
 Malignancy96 (19.0%)75 (20.9%)21 (14.3%)0.12
Main clinical presentation
 Acute feature/symptoms285 (56.4%)203 (56.7%)82 (55.8%)0.001
 Subacute/chronic feature/symptoms39 (7.7%)31 (8.7%)8 (5.5%)
 Seizure54 (10.7%)44 (12.3%)10 (6.8%)
 Altered mental state/agitation74 (14.7%)36 (10.1%)38 (25.9%)
 Loss of consciousness21 (4.2%)14 (3.9%)7 (4.8%)
 Headache/pain32 (6.3%)30 (8.4%)2 (1.4%)
Laboratory findings at ED
 White cell count (mm3)8.9±4.88.6±3.29.5±7.30.07
 Lymphocytes count (mm3)1.6±1.11.6±0.81.6±1.40.23
 Platelet count per (mm3)249.7±96.4252.6±92.1243.1±105.70.32
 Haemoglobin (g/L)134±17135±16131±180.05
 C reactive protein (mg/L)19.5±41.212.8±31.934.4±53.7<0.0001
 Alanine aminotransferase (U/L)30.5±31.427.07±25.136.7±41.70.008
 Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L)30.4±31.528.1±31.235.5±31.80.04
 Fibrinogen (mg/dL)363.1±138.7339.7±122.5408.7±157.10.001
Management and outcomes
 Hospitalisation rate382 (75.6%)248 (69.3%)134 (91.2%)<0.001
 Modified Rankin Scale, preadmission1.1±1.31.16±1.30.9±1.00.82
 Modified Rankin Scale, discharge1.9±1.51.6±1.42.6±1.6<0.001
 In-hospital mortality53 (10.7%)11 (3.1%)43 (29.7%)<0.001
  • Data are mean or n (%). P values were calculated by t-test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate.

  • Significant comparisons are highlighted as boldfaced p value

  • ED, emergency department.