Table 1

Characteristics of patients hospitalised for ischaemic stroke with COVID-19 versus ischaemic stroke without COVID-19

Characteristics of included patientsCOVID-19 patients (12)Non-COVID-19 patients (55)P value
Demographic, N (%) if not stated
 Female gender3 (25.0)23 (41.8)0.343
 Age, years, median (P25;P75)66 (53;73.5)75 (63;84)0.072
 Age <60 years5 (41.7)8 (14.6)0.046
Origin, N (%) if not stated0.008
 Caucasian4 (33.4)41 (74.6)
 Afro-Caribbean6 (50.0)7 (12.7)
 Asian1 (8.3)1 (1.8)
 Other1 (8.3)6 (10.9)
Baseline cardiovascular risk factors, N (%) if not stated
 Hypertension10 (83.3)30 (54.6)0.104
 Diabetes mellitus5 (41.7)12 (21.8)0.164
 Dyslipidaemia6 (50.0)22 (40.0)0.538
 Tobacco intoxication, N (%) (data not available)3 (30.0) (2)17 (33.3) (4)1
 Obesity, N (%) (data not available)3 (25.0)11 (21.2) (3)1
 History of ischaemic stroke or coronary disease or lower limb arteriopathy4 (33.3)20 (36.4)1
 History of atrial fibrillation1 (8.3)5 (9.1)1
 Chronic kidney disease3 (25.0)6 (10.9)0.345
Clinical and radiological characteristics, N (%) if not stated
 NIHSS, median (P25;P75)9 (4;20.5)3 (2;10)0.053
 Delirium at admission5 (41.7)7 (12.7)0.032
 Delay symptom onset—brain imaging <6 hours5 (41.7)25 (45.5)1
 Proximal arterial occlusion6 (50.0)11 (20.0)0.061
 Involvement of anterior circulation12 (100)39 (70.9)0.056
Blood biological data at admission, median (P25;P75) (data not available) if not stated
 Lymphocytes/µL1130 (880;1330)1525 (1100;2060) (1)0.065
 Neutrophils/µL6200 (2970;7890)5800 (4640;6930) (1)0.406
 Eosinophils/µL30 (0;90)120 (40;200) (1)0.008
 Platelets×10∧9/L337 (254;423)238 (199;302)0.025
 Fibrinogen, mg/dL560 (480;724) (1)361 (319;400) (2)<0.001
 D-dimers, µg/mL1.79 (1.37;13.60) (4)0.64 (0.37;2.17) (31)0.030
 C reactive protein, mg/dL3.115 (1.520;5.000)0.400 (0.179;0.606) (1)<0.001
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L31 (25;40)21 (17;25) (1)0.018
Potential causes for IS, N (%) if not stated
 Arterial disease
 Atherothrombosis†
7 (58.3)
5 (41.7)
15 (27.3)
11 (20.0)
0.049
0.140
 Small vessel disease†2 (16.7)4 (7.3)0.291
 Cardiac pathology (atrial fibrillation or significant PFO)‡1 (8.3)14 (25.5)0.273
 Floating thrombus1 (8.3)0 (0)
 Lupus circulating anticoagulant, N/N screened5/6 (83.3)1/9 (11.1)0.011
 Associated meningitis1 (8.3)0 (0.0)
Treatment and outcomes, N (%) if not stated
 Reperfusion therapy3 (25.0)15 (27.3)1
 Death2 (16.7)3 (5.5)0.216
 mRS ≤2 at dischargee6 (50.0)33 (60.0)0.538
  • *SI conversion factors: To convert lymphocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils to U/109, multiply values by 0.001. To convert fibrinogen in g/L, multiply values by 0.01. To convert D-dimer in nmol/L, multiply values by 1000. To convert C reactive protein in mg/L, multiply values by 10. To convert alanine aminotransferase in µkat/L, multiply values by 0.0167.

  • †Potentially causal atherothrombosis and cerebral small vessel disease are defined following ASCOD phenotype.

  • ‡Potentially causal cardiac pathology is defined following ASCOD phenotype updated to include patent foramen ovale-associated stroke.

  • ASCOD phenotyping, A: atherosclerosis; S: small-vessel disease; C: cardiac pathology; O: other causes; D: dissection; mRS, Modified Rankin Scale; NIHSS, National Institute of Health Stroke Score; PFO, Patent Foramen Ovale.