Table 4

Results from linear regression analysis between CAIDE score and total cognition on average 23.8 years later*

Beta estimate for total cognitive score (95% CIs)
Between-family analysis*Within-family analysis†Within-family analysis in DZ twins‡Within-family analysis in MZ twins§
CAIDE score0.73 (−0.82 to −0.65)−0.29 (−0.69 to 0.10)−0.38 (−0.90 to 0.14)−0.05 (−0.59 to 0.49)
CAIDE score adjusted for depressive symptoms0.56 (−0.68 to −0.44)−0.14 (−0.60 to 0.32)−0.22 (−0.82 to 0.38)0.11 (−0.62 to 0.84)
CAIDE score, participants with at least 16.5 years of follow-up0.69 (−0.78 to −0.60)−0.22 (−0.73 to 0.30)−0.29 (−0.98 to 0.41)−0.03 (−0.77 to 0.71)
CAIDE score without education adjusted with years of education0.40 (−0.51 to −0.30)−0.10 (−0.52 to 0.31)−0.13 (−0.70 to 0.44)−0.05 (−0.60 to 0.51)
Diabetes (from multivariate linear regression with CAIDE score)−0.37 (−2.04 to 1.31)
Smoking (from multivariate linear regression analysis with CAIDE score)−0.08 (−0.24 to 0.08)
  • *N=2359 all twin individuals, N=1109 for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=1957 for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years, N=2359 for analyses with CAIDE score without education, N=2355 for diabetes analyses and N=2356 for smoking analyses.

  • †N=570 all twin pairs, N=267 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=406 twin pairs for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years and N=570 for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

  • ‡N=343 all twin pairs, N=151 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=235 twin pairs for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years and N=343 twin pairs for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

  • §N=226 for all twin pairs, N=115 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=170 twin pairs for those with follow-up at least 16.5 years and N=226 twin pairs for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

  • ¶All the results have been adjusted for the length of follow-up. The statistically significant results are typed in bold. Higher CAIDE score is associated with poorer cognition.

  • DZ, dizygotic; MZ, monozygotic.