Beta estimate for total cognitive score (95% CIs) | ||||

Between-family analysis* | Within-family analysis† | Within-family analysis in DZ twins‡ | Within-family analysis in MZ twins§ | |

CAIDE score | −0.73 (−0.82 to −0.65) | −0.29 (−0.69 to 0.10) | −0.38 (−0.90 to 0.14) | −0.05 (−0.59 to 0.49) |

CAIDE score adjusted for depressive symptoms | −0.56 (−0.68 to −0.44) | −0.14 (−0.60 to 0.32) | −0.22 (−0.82 to 0.38) | 0.11 (−0.62 to 0.84) |

CAIDE score, participants with at least 16.5 years of follow-up | −0.69 (−0.78 to −0.60) | −0.22 (−0.73 to 0.30) | −0.29 (−0.98 to 0.41) | −0.03 (−0.77 to 0.71) |

CAIDE score without education adjusted with years of education | −0.40 (−0.51 to −0.30) | −0.10 (−0.52 to 0.31) | −0.13 (−0.70 to 0.44) | −0.05 (−0.60 to 0.51) |

Diabetes (from multivariate linear regression with CAIDE score) | −0.37 (−2.04 to 1.31) | |||

Smoking (from multivariate linear regression analysis with CAIDE score) | −0.08 (−0.24 to 0.08) |

*N=2359 all twin individuals, N=1109 for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=1957 for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years, N=2359 for analyses with CAIDE score without education, N=2355 for diabetes analyses and N=2356 for smoking analyses.

†N=570 all twin pairs, N=267 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=406 twin pairs for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years and N=570 for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

‡N=343 all twin pairs, N=151 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=235 twin pairs for those with follow-up of at least 16.5 years and N=343 twin pairs for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

§N=226 for all twin pairs, N=115 twin pairs for analyses adjusted with depressive symptoms, N=170 twin pairs for those with follow-up at least 16.5 years and N=226 twin pairs for analyses with CAIDE score without education.

¶All the results have been adjusted for the length of follow-up. The statistically significant results are typed in bold. Higher CAIDE score is associated with poorer cognition.

DZ, dizygotic; MZ, monozygotic.