Table 4

Effect sizes for comparisons of PDT with control and CBT with control

DomainStudyMeasurePopulationSampleControlTypeEffect sizes (compared with control)
Treatment end6-month follow-up12-month follow-up
Physical symptomsHubschmid 201529 SDQ-20All FND1112 SCPDT0.84*0.38**
Sharpe 201119 PHQ-15All FND6463 SCCBT0.250.13
Dallocchio 201617 PMDRSMotor FND118 SCCBT1.41
PMDRS (M)1.99
PHQ-151.83
Goldstein 201015 Seizure freq.PNES3333 SMCCBT0.75†0.42†
Goldstein 202024 Seizure freq.PNES186182 SMCCBTNCNC
Seizure severity0.290.17
Bothersome0.390.34
Mental healthHubschmid 201529 BDIAll FND1112 SCPDT0*−0.52*0*
MADRS−0.09*−0.41*0*
SF-36 (M)−0.050.240.98
CGI−0.32*−0.12*0.22*
Kompoliti 201428 Ham-DMotor FND78 SCPDT0.59
BAI0.53
Dallocchio 201617 Ham-DMotor FND118 SCCBT1.58
BAI1.31
Sharpe 201119 HADS (A)All FND6463 SCCBT0.360.36
HADS (D)0.290.32
Goldstein 201015 HADS (A)PNES3333 SMCCBT0.200.20
HADS (D)0.190.32
Goldstein 202024 SF-12 (M)PNES186182 SMCCBT0.320.16
GAD-70.380.18
Well-beingHubschmid 201529 SF-36All FND1112 SCPDT−0.92−2.22−1.28
Goldstein 202024 EQ5D5LPNES186182CBT0.330.33
FunctionSharpe 201119 SF-12 (F)All FND6463 SCCBT0.250.47
Hubschmid 201529 RankinAll FND1112 SCPDT−0.09*0.31*−0.57*
Employment3.76*1.74*0.26*
Dallocchio 201617 PMDRS (F)Motor FND118 SCCBT1.44
Goldstein 201015 WSASPNES3333 SMCCBT0.590.64
Goldstein 202024 SF-12 (F)PNES186182CBT0.220.27
WSAS0.390.36
Resource useHubschmid 201529 Hospital daysAll FND1112 SCPDT−0.99**
A&E use0.41**
  • *Calculated using OR.

  • †Effect size provided by authors.

  • A&E, Accident and Emergency; BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; CGI, Clinical Global Impression; EQ5D5L, EuroQol 5 Dimension 5-Level Scale; FND, functional neurological disorder; GAD-7, 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale; HADS, Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Score (A=anxiety subscore/D=depression subscore); Ham-D, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; MADRS, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale; NC, not calculable; PDT, psychodynamic therapy; PHQ-15, 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PMDRS, Psychogenic Movement Disorders Rating Scale (M=motor subscore/F=function subscore); PNES, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures; SC, standard care; SDQ-20, 20-item Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; SF-12/36, 12/36-item Short Form health survey (M=mental health subscore/F=function subscore); SMC, standardised medical care; WSAS, Work and Social Adjustment Scale.