Table 1

The association between depressive symptomatology (CES-D) and clinical and socioeconomic characteristics

Depressive symptomatologyP value*
CES-D <16 and not treated (n=285)CES-D ≥16 or treated (n=93)
n (%)n (%)
Sex, female197 (69.1)66 (71.0)0.74
Marital status0.02
 Married or living as a couple223 (78.3)61 (66.3)
Educational level0.06
 College/university204 (71.8)57 (61.3)
 Living alone37 (13.0)17 (18.3)0.2
Socioeconomic class, n=3580.04
 Higher managerial, administrative occupations75 (27.6)14 (16.3)
 Lower managerial, administrative occupations108 (39.7)31 (36.0)
 Intermediate occupations31 (11.4)17 (19.8)
 Employers, own account, technical, routine occupation30 (11.0)16 (18.6)
 Never worked or long-term unemployed28 (10.3)8 (9.3)
BMI (kg/m2)0.09
 Normal (<25)115 (40.3)26 (28.0)
 Overweight (25–30)106 (37.2)40 (43.0)
 Obese (≥30)64 (22.5)27 (29.0)
Hypertension (treated or SBP >140)44 (15.4)22 (23.7)0.07
Cardiovascular disease (declared)24 (8.4)10 (10.8)0.5
Diabetes (treated or declared or glycaemia >7 mmol/L), n=3778 (2.8)8 (8.6)0.02
Anxiety symptoms (Spielberger state scale >31)71 (24.9)51 (54.8)<0.0001
Parental history of dementia (n=377)151 (53.2)52(55.9)0.64
Traumatic events at any age (at least 1 event)39 (13.7)25 (26.9)0.003
Traumatic events after 16 years only (at least 1 event)6 (2.1)4 (4.3)0.25
Traumatic events at 16 years or younger (at least 1 early event)33 (11.6)21 (22.6)0.009
Median (IQR)Median (IQR)P value†
Age (years)53 (47–56)53 (49–56)0.76
Hippocampal grey matter volume (mm3)3689 (3525–3951)3681 (3428–3949)0.66
Intracranial volume (cm3), n=1931387 (1299–1477)1354 (1268–1451)0.22
  • 2 test.

  • †Wilcoxon two-sample test.

  • ‡With parental history of dementia.

  • BMI, body mass index; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale; SBP, systolic blood pressure.