Table 1

Characteristics of identified studies

Author/s and yearLocationPopulationSample sizeStudyInterventionFollow-upNHLBI quality
Goldstein et al 200413 London, UKPNES20B+ACBT
(FEA)
6 monthsGood (9/12)
LaFrance et al 200914 Rhode Island, USAPNES21B+ACBT
(ES-MDD)
Treatment endGood (10/12)
Goldstein et al 201015 London, UKPNES33 CBT+SMC
33 SMC
RCTCBT
(FEA)
6 monthsGood (11/14)
LaFrance et al 201416 Rhode Island, USAPNES9 CBT
9 SSRI
10 CBT+SSRI
10 SC
RCTCBT
(ES-MDD)
Treatment endFair (9/14)
Dallocchio et al 201617 Verona, ItalyMotor FND11 CBT
8 SC
10 CBT+APA
RCTCBT
(FEA)
Treatment endFair (10/14)
Baslet et al 201518 Chicago, USAPNES6B+ACBT
(FEA+MBT)
Treatment endPoor (6/12)
Sharpe et al 201119 Edinburgh and Glasgow, UKAll FND64 CBT
63 SC
RCTCBT
(GSH)
6 monthsGood (12/14)
Myers et al 201720 Pennsylvania, USAPNES +PTSD18B+ACBT
(PE)
Treatment endFair (9/12)
Graham et al 201821 Leeds, UKAll FND8B+ACBT
(ACT)
Treatment endFair (9/12)
Tolchin et al 201922 Boston, USAPNES31 CBT
29 CBT+MI
#RCTCBT
(FEA±MI)
Treatment endGood (12/14)
Baslet et al 202023 Boston, USAPNES49B+ACBT
(FEA+MBT)
Treatment endPoor (6/12)
Goldstein et al 202024 England, Scotland and Wales, UKPNES186 CBT+SMC
181 SMC
RCTCBT
(FEA)
12 monthsGood (12/14)
Hinson et al 200625 Chicago, USAMotor FND10B+APDT
(STDP)
Treatment endFair (9/12)
Reuber et al 200726 Sheffield, UKAll FND91B+APDT
(PIT)
6 monthsFair (9/12)
Mayor et al 201027 Sheffield, UKPNES47B+APDT
(PIT)
31–65 monthsPoor (7/12)
Kompoliti et al 201428 Chicago, USAMotor FND7 immediate
8 delayed
RCTPDT
(STDP)
6 monthsPoor (8/14)
Hubschmid et al 201529 Lausanne, SwitzerlandAll FND11 treatment
12 control
RCTPDT
(PIT)
12 monthsFair (10/14)
Russell et al 201630 Nova Scotia, CanadaPNES28B+APDT
(STDP)
3 yearsPoor (7/12)
Santos et al 201431 Sao Paolo, BrazilPNES37B+APDT
(PA)
Treatment endPoor (7/12)
  • #RCT=RCT analysed as B+A in this review.

  • ACT, acceptance and commitment therapy; APA, adjunctive physical activity; B+A, before and after study; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; ES-MDD, CBT for epilepsy and major depressive disorder; FEA, fear-escape avoidance model; FND, functional neurological disorder; GSH, guided self-help; MBT, mindfulness-based therapy; MI, motivational interviewing; NHLBI, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; PA, psychoanalysis; PDT, psychodynamic therapy; PE, prolonged exposure; PIT, psychodynamic interpersonal therapy; PNES, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SC, standard care; SMC, standardised medical care; SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; STDP, short-term dynamic psychotherapy.