Table 2

The demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with NMOSD with pregnancies after disease onset

Primary cohortValidation cohort
Number of patients6035
Number of AQP4-ab/MOG-ab positivity50/533/2
Number of pregnancies after disease onset7644
Time interval from disease onset to first relapse, m, median (range)15.0 (0–231.0)12.0 (0–108.0)
Age at disease onset, year, mean±SD23.8±6.323.5±5.4
Age at delivery/abortion, year, mean±SD28.7±4.429.6±4.2
Total number of pregnancy-related attacks6944
Type of pregnancy-related attack, n (%)
 Optic neuritis31 (44.9)19 (45.5)
 Acute myelitis35 (50.7)28 (63.6)
 Area postrema syndrome4 (5.8)2 (4.5)
 Acute brainstem syndrome4 (5.8)0 (0)
Concomitant auto-antibodies, n (%)26 (43.3)15 (42.9)
 ANA22 (36.7)14 (40.0)
 ENA-ab12 (20.0)5 (14.3)
 dsDNA-ab1 (1.7)2 (5.7)
 ANCA0 (0)0 (0)
 ACA1 (1.7)0 (0)
 TPO-ab and TG-ab13 (21.7)1 (2.9)
Treatment variables, n (%)
 Adequate treatment*10 (13.2)13 (29.5)
 Inadequate treatment†66 (86.8)31 (70.5)
  • *Adequate treatment was defined as (1) usage of relatively higher dose oral prednisone (>10 mg/day), (2) usage of immunosuppressant (azathioprine 100 mg/day or tacrolimus 3 mg/day) combined with or without oral steroid, (3) a dose of rituximab (375 mg/m2) within 6 months before conception and shortly after delivery.

  • †Inadequate treatment referred to (1) no treatment at all, (2) usage of low-dose oral prednisone (≤10 mg/day) as single therapy.

  • ACA, anticardiolipin antibody; ANA, antinuclear antibody; ANCA, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody; AQP4-ab, aquaporin-4 antibody; dsDNA-ab, double-stranded DNA antibody; ENA-ab, extractable nuclear antigen antibody; MOG-ab, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody; NMOSD, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder; TG-ab, thyroglobulin antibody; TPO-ab, thyroid peroxidase antibody.