Table 3

Effect sizes for pre–post comparisons in CBT studies

DomainStudyMeasurePopulationSampleEffect sizes (pre–post)
Treatment end6-month follow-up12-month follow-up
Physical symptomsGoldstein 200413 Seizure freq.PNES200.440.45
Sharpe 201119 PHQ-15All FND640.380.48
Dallocchio 201617 PMDRSMotor FND111.46
PMDRS (M)1.44
PHQ-151.56
Baslet 2015Seizure freq.PNES60.77
LaFrance 201416 Seizure freq.PNES90.48*
Baslet 202023 Seizure freq.PNES49NC
PHQ-150.19
Goldstein 202024 Seizure freq.PNES186NCNC
Seizure severity0.460.53
Bothersome0.690.71
Mental healthSharpe 201119 HADS (A)All FND640.110.45
HADS (D)0.450.17
LaFrance 200914 Ham-DPNES210.41
BDI0.70
DTS0.69
DES0.49
SCL-900.48
CGI1.95
Dallocchio 201617 Ham-DMotor FND112.12
BAI1.35
Goldstein 200413 HADS (A)PNES200.400.31
HADS (D)0.540.48
Baslet 2012BDIPNES60.44
DASS-A0.21
Goldstein 201015 HADS (A)PNES330.210.33
HADS (D)0.130.22
Myers 2017PDSPNES+PTSD182.11
BDI1.65
Graham 201821 CORE-10All FND81.70
Baslet 202023 BDIPNES490.16
DASS-A0.05
DES0.03
Goldstein 202024 SF-12 (M)PNES1860.220.30
GAD-70.240.23
Well-beingLaFrance 200914 QOLIE-31PNES210.74
Tolchin 201922 QOLIE-10PNES310.21
29+MI0.76
Baslet 202023 QOLIE-10PNES490.19
Goldstein 202024 EQ5D5LPNES1860.110.20
FunctionGoldstein 200413 WSASPNES200.660.70
Sharpe 201119 SF-12 (F)All FND640.080.33
LaFrance 200914 GAFPNES210.86
OHS0.18
LIFE-RIFT0.49
Dallocchio 201617 PMDRS (F)Motor FND111.32
Goldstein 201015 WSASPNES330.76
Graham 201821 WSASAll FND81.02
Goldstein 202024 SF-12 (F)PNES1860.080.08
WSAS0.40.52
  • *Calculated using OR.

  • BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; CBT, cognitive behavioural therapy; CGI, Clinical Global Impression; CORE-10, 10-item Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation; DASS-A, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale anxiety subscore; DES, Dissociative Experiences Scale; DTS, Davidson Trauma Scale; EQ5D5L, EuroQol 5 Dimension 5-Level Scale; FND, functional neurological disorder; GAD-7, 7-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale; GAF, Global Assessment of Function; HADS, Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Score (A=anxiety subscore/D=depression subscore); Ham-D, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; LIFE-RIFT, Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation-Range of Impaired Functioning Tool; MI, motivational interviewing; NC, not calculable; OHS, Oxford Handicap Scale; PDS, Post-traumatic Diagnosis Scale; PHQ-15, 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire; PMDRS, Psychogenic Movement Disorders Rating Scale (M=motor subscore/F=function subscore); PNES, psychogenic non-epileptic seizures; PTSD, post-traumatic stress disorder; QOLIE-31/10, 31/10-item Quality of Life in Epilepsy score; SCL-90, 90-item Symptom Checklist; SF-12, 12-item Short Form health survey (M=mental health subscore/F=function subscore); WSAS, Work and Social Adjustment Scale.