Table 1

Markers of inflammation in FTD

Fluid biomarkersBiological functionUnspecified FTDPSPFTD-GRNFTD-C9orf72FTD-MAPTRef.
PSPSPS
GFAPMarker of astrogliosis 40 41
sTREM2Microglial activation marker- 35 36
YKL40Proinflammatory marker of activated astrocytes 37 38
CHIT1Microglial activation marker 37 38
IL-1βCytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 51
IL-6Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 43 44 46 47 51
IL-8 (CXCL8)Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 44
IL-11Cytokine with largely anti-inflammatory activity 47
IL-12Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 48
IL-15Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 42 49
IL-18Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 46
TNF-αCytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 46 50–52
IP-10/CXCL10Chemokine with largely proinflammatory activity 42 44
MCP-1/CCL2Chemokine with largely proinflammatory activity 42 44
RANTES/ CCL5Cytokine with largely proinflammatory activity 42
TGF-βCytokine with largely anti-inflammatory activity 50
  • Blue, in cerebrospinal fluid; green, in blood and cerebrospinal fluid; red, in blood; yellow, in neuron-derived exosomes from plasma.

  • – indicates (unchanged levels); ↑ indicates increased levels; ↓ indicates decreased levels; all compared with controls.

  • CHIT1, chitotriosidase; C9orf72, chromosome 9 open reading frame 72; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; GRN, progranulin; IL, interleukin; MAPT, microtubule-associated protein tau; MCP-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; P, presymptomatic; PSP, progressive supranuclear palsy; RANTES, regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; Ref, reference; S, symptomatic; sTREM2, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2; TGF-β, transforming growth factor β; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor α.