Table 2

Cause-specific hazard models: multivariable associations of baseline clinical and MRI characteristics with functional decline

First transition to mRS 4/5
CSHR (95% CI)P value
Model 1: baseline clinical and ICH characteristics*
 Age (years)1.08 (1.05 to 1.12)<0.001
 mRS 6 months1.72 (1.24 to 2.41)0.001
 Diabetes mellitus2.49 (1.18 to 5.28)0.017
 ICH volume (mL)(§)1.03 (1.01 to 1.06)0.016
Model 2: baseline clinical, ICH and MRI characteristics
 Age (years)1.07 (1.03 to 1.11)‡<0.001
 mRS 6 months1.60 (1.10 to 2.32)0.014
 Diabetes mellitus2.54 (1.08 to 6.02)0.034
 ICH volume (mL)(§)1.04 (1.01 to 1.07)0.003
  None1.00 (ref)0.018
  CMBs strictly deep1.29 (0.15 to 11.02)
  CMBs strictly lobar3.46 (1.15 to 10.45)
  CMBs mixed4.33 (1.68 to 11.16)
  • Cause-specific HRs for long-term functional decline (defined as time to first transition from mRS 0–3 to 4–5) were calculated using backward-stepwise multivariable cause-specific Cox regression models for interval-censored data treating death as competing event.

  • *Model 1 was based on the following candidates’ predictors: age, sex, diabetes mellitus, ICH volume, atrial fibrillation, smoking, antiplatelet therapy, antihypertensive therapy, mRS score at 6 months, ICH location (lobar location and deep location).

  • †Model 2 was based on the following candidates’ predictors: age, diabetes mellitus, ICH volume, mRS score at 6 months, white matter hyperintensities, lacunes, cerebral atrophy score and cortical superficial siderosis.

  • ‡Calculated per 10-year increase.

  • §Calculated per 1 mL increase.

  • CMBs, cerebral microbleeds; CSHR, cause-specific HR; ICH, intracerebral haemorrhage; mRS, modified Rankin Scale.