Table 1

Morphological characteristics of all plaques and comparisons of different plaque types*

CharacteristicsOverall (N=180)Plaque typesP value †Smooth and irregular plaques (n=152)P value ‡
Smooth (n=51)Irregular (n=101)Ulcerative (n=28)
Location of the qualifying ICAD lesions0.0350.048
 MCA-M1132 (73.3)45 (88.2)72 (71.3)15 (53.6)117 (77.0)
 Terminal ICA26 (14.4)4 (7.8)14 (13.9)8 (28.6)18 (11.8)
 Across terminal ICA and proximal MCA6 (3.3)0 (0)4 (4.0)2 (7.1)4 (2.6)
 VA-V4 or BA16 (8.9)2 (3.9)11 (10.9)3 (10.7)13 (8.6)
Arterial luminal stenosis, %75 (71–84)73 (70–79)78 (72–86)77 (72–81)0.02775 (70–85)0.876
Maximal plaque thickness, mm1.3 (1.2–1.6)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.3 (1.2–1.6)1.6 (1.3–1.9)0.0071.3 (1.1–1.6)0.003
Plaque length, mm9.0 (6.9–11.6)7.0 (5.8–8.7)10.1 (8.0–13.2)9.0 (6.2–14.9)<0.0019.0 (6.9–11.6)0.873
Eccentricity index0.87 (0.63–1.00)0.87 (0.68–1.00)0.83 (0.59–1.00)1.00 (0.80–1.00)0.1640.85 (0.62–1.00)0.107
 Eccentric plaque152 (84.4)44 (86.3)83 (82.2)25 (89.3)0.599127 (83.6)0.442
Upstream plaque shoulder angulation,°33.4 (23.4–46.4)28.0 (21.1–43.6)33.1 (24.0–43.4)56.2 (30.6–94.2)<0.00131.0 (22.5–43.4)<0.001
Maximal stenosis distribution in the longitudinal axis of the lesion0.4160.321
 Proximal 1/3 of the lesion28 (15.6)6 (11.8)15 (14.9)7 (25.0)21 (13.8)
 Middle 1/3 of the lesion63 (35.0)21 (41.2)33 (32.7)9 (32.1)54 (35.5)
 Distal 1/3 of the lesion89 (49.4)24 (47.1)53 (52.5)12 (42.9)77 (50.7)
Adjoining branch atheromatous disease in cases with MCA-M1 or BA lesions88 (60.3)20 (43.5)53 (64.6)15 (83.3)0.00773 (57.0)0.033
  • *Values are medians (IQR) or numbers (%); Kruskal-Wallis tests or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used for comparison of continuous variables and χ2 tests for categorical variables.

  • †P values for comparisons among smooth, irregular and ulcerative plaques.

  • ‡P values for comparisons between ulcerative plaques and other plaques.

  • ICAD, intracranial atherosclerotic disease; MCA-M1, M1 middle cerebral artery; ICA, internal carotid artery; VA-V4, V4 vertebral artery; BA, basilar artery.