Table 4

Observational data on symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (sICH) risk following endovascular stroke treatment

StudyNumber of patients (DOAC type)Number of sICH/rateNumber of patients (comparator)Number of sICH/rateComment (DOAC group)
Heterogenous or unknown selection criteria (n=14 studies, n=558 patients)
 Seiffge et al 11 27 (all DOAC)0 (0%)27 (VKA) and
43 no anticoagulation)
6 (22%) and
2 (5%)
Heterogenous selection criteria, all within 48 hours, partly plasma level based.
 Rebello et al 45 17 (all DOAC)3 (18%)29 (VKA) and
265 no anticoagulation)
5 (17%) and
27 (10%)
All within 24 hours; PH1, PH2 and SAH defined as sICH.
 Rebello et al 45 73 (all DOAC)5 (7%)142 (VKA) and
1052 no anticoagulation)
13 (9%) and
57 (5%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Purrucker et al 44 28 (all DOAC)1 (4%)NADrug-specific coagulation tests indicated through drug concentrations in the majority of patients, no comparator.
 Zapata-Wainberg et al 9 (all DOAC)0 (0%)104 (VKA) and
389 (no anticoagulation)
4 (4%) and
28 (7%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Kurowski et al 16 (all DOAC)0 (0%)51 (VKA) and
453 (no anticoagulation)
7 (14%) and
32 (7%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Suzuki et al 10 44 (all DOAC)3 (7%)7 (VKA) and
23 (no anticoagulation)
0 (0%) and
0 (0%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available, recall bias.
 Cernik et al 15 (not specified)0 (0%)50 (VKA) and
615 (no anticoagulation)
6 (12%) and
31 (5%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Hoyer et al 10 (not specified)0 (0%)30 (no anticoagulation)1 (3%)No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Wong et al 43 13 (all DOAC)0 (0%)23 (VKA) and
66 (no anticoagulation)
1 (4%) and
1 (2%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Krajickova et al 5 (all DOAC)0 (0%)21 (VKA) and
259 (no anticoagulation)
2 (10%) and
21 (8%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
 Meinel et al 98 (all DOAC)5 (5%)69 (VKA) and
1612 (no anticoagulation)
5 (7%) and
84 (5%)
See below for patients with confirmed therapeutic DOAC therapy only.
 L’Allinec et al 58 105 (all DOAC)6 (6%)97 (VKA)12 (12%)Last intake within 24 hours, specific drug levels not available.
 Goldhoorn et al 98 (not specified)1 (1%)404 (VKA) and
2660 (no anticoagulation)
23 (6%) and
162 (6%)
No selection criteria or information on anticoagulation available.
DOAC plasma-level based approach (n=2 studies, n=56 (patients))
 Seiffge et al 28 7 (rivaroxaban)0 (0%)NA3 of 7 low or intermediate drug level
 Meinel et al 48 49 (all DOAC)2 (4%)222 (VKA) and
1612 (no anticoagulation)
21 (9.5%) and
84 (5%)
Ascertained compliance or therapeutic drug levels
  • DOAC, direct oral anticoagulant; PH, parenchymal haemorrhage; VKA, vitamin K antagonist.