Table 1

Patient (P1–P13) characteristics and performance in cognitive tests

PatientsAge (years)SexICU stay (days)Mechanical ventilation (days)ICU discharge to cognitive assessment (days)Brain atrophyICU deliriumMoCA scores
FAB scores
MoCA mean subtest scores
FAB mean subtest scores
Cognitive slowness
Mental fatigue
(0–10) and anxiety* disturbances
P160sm46384 rFgm; fv N 29 16.8 Ex: 3.63
Me: 5.10
VS: 5.63
La: 5.70
At: 5.75
Or: 6.00
Co: 2.50
Pr: 2.75
Inh: 3.00
Int: 3.00
P260sf12116N 28 15.6 222
P370sm31216NoneN 26.9 15.6 023
P460sm675010NoneN 26 14.4 121
P560sm16109NoneY 23 16.8 Ex: 2.25
Me: 3.00
At: 3.75
VS: 4.13
Or: 5.25
La: 5.40
Fl: 1.25
Pr: 2.00
Co: 2.50
Inh: 2.75
Int: 2.75
P650sm21167Y 22 13.2 220
P750sm21175NoneY 21 14.4 223
P870sf14134NoneN 19 9.6 122*
P960sm21174NoneN 17 7.2 Me: 0.48
VS: 1.13
Ex: 1.30
At: 2.00
Or: 3.40
La: 4.08
Fl: 0.00
Inh: 0.80
Pr: 0.80
Int: 1.00
Co: 1.60
P1060sm27192 rlFgm; lTgm; rlFwm; rlv; tv; fv Y 16.8 2.4 333
P1150sm40232 rlFgm; rlCgm Y 13 9.6 222
P1270sm25257 rFgm; rlFwm; lPwm; rlOwm Y 10 4.8 338
P1370sf24196 rlFgm; rPgm; rlTgm; rlv; tv Y 4 1.2 336
  • Patients were ranked from highest to lowest performing at MoCA test. Three patients had a CT scan, which was within normal range (P5, P8, P9); eight patients had an MRI-based morphometry, which was within normal range in three patients (P3, P4, P7) and showed signs of atrophy, in bold, in five other patients (P1, P10–P13). ICU delirium was rated N (no delirium) or Y (with delirium). Scores at MoCA and FAB: performance within normal limits is in italics, deficient in bold. For the MoCA, the maximum score is 30 and deficient score below 26 (see for details): four patients (P1–P4) had normal performances (score ≥26), four patients (P5–P8) had mild deficits (score between 25 and 18) and five patients (P9–P13) had moderate to severe deficits (score below 18). For the FAB, the maximum score is 18. The cut-off score of normal performance is determined by age and educational level (see for details). The subtest environmental autonomy not having been evaluated because of sanitary requirements, we have extrapolated for the missing subtest by multiplying the FAB score by 1.2. For each MoCA subtest (At: attention, Ex: executive functions, La: language, Me: memory, Or: orientation, VS: visuospatial abilities) and FAB subtest (Co: conceptualisation, Fl: mental flexibility, Inh: inhibitory control, Int: sensitivity to interference, Pr: programming) means were calculated within three groups of patients: normal performance at MoCA score (mean P1–P4), mild deficits at MoCA score (mean P5–P8), moderate to severe deficits at MoCA score (mean P9–P13). Cognitive slowness and mental fatigue were rated on an observational scale of 3 (3 corresponding to a severe manifestation). Mood disturbance was rated on a self-assessment scale of 10 (10 corresponding to most affected) and anxiety with a yes/no question (yes=present*). Last two rows: mean and SD.

  • C, cingulate gyrus; f, female; F, frontal gyrus; FAB, Frontal Assessment Battery; fv, fourth ventricle; gm, grey matter; ICU, intensive care unit; l, left; lv, left ventricle; m, male; MoCA, Montreal Cognitive Assessment; O, occipital gyrus; P, parietal gyrus; r, right; rv, right ventricle; T, temporal gyrus; tv, third ventricle; wm, white matter.