Table 1

Summary of neuroimaging results that correlated with improvement in behaviour

Treatment classEvidenceAuthorYearNeuroimagingSubjectsAge categoryTreatmentRegion of analysis
OCDHCCaudateOFCPFCACCThalamusOther
Pharmaco-therapyMetabolicBaxter1992PET94AdultFluoxetine↓(R)
Swedo1992PET130AdultClomipramine or Fluoxetine
Perani1995PET1115AdultVarious SSRI or Clomipramine↓middle, posterior cingulate
Hansen2002PET2011AdultParoxetine↓(R)
Apostolova2010PET70AdultParoxetine↑(R)
PerfusionHendler2003SPECT260AdultSertraline↑(L)anterior middle temporal gyrus
Ho-Pian2005SPECT150AdultFluvoxamine↓(R)
Karadağ2013SPECT1210AdultSSRI+Risperidone
NeurochemicalRosenberg2000H-MRS1111PaediatricParoxetine↓(L)(Glx)
Lissemore20185-HT synthesis PET80AdultSertraline↑global 5-HT synthesis capacity
StructuralGilbert2000Volumetric MRI108PaediatricParoxetine
Lázaro2009Volumetric MRI1515PaediatricFluoxetine*↑parietal lobe
FunctionalHan2011task fMRI1020AdultEscitalopram or Fluoxetine↑(L)↑(R)insula
CBTMetabolicBaxter1992PET94AdultE/RP↓(R)
Saxena2009PET1012AdultE/RP* (Foa)↑(R)
Apostolova2010PET90AdultE/RP (Foa)↑(R)
Lissemore20185-HT synthesis PET80AdultE/RP↑ Global 5-HT synthesis capacity
PerfusionYamanishi2009SPECT450AdultE/RP* (Iikura)↓(R)
NeurochemicalWhiteside2012H-MRS1515AdultE/RP*↑(L)(NAA)↑(R)(tNAA)
StructuralHuyser2013Volumetric MRI2627PaediatricE/RP (Haan, Wolters et al)↑(L)
Atmaca2018Volumetric MRI1212AdultE/RP↑(L)
Zhong2019DWI-FA8590AdultE/RP↑(L)(L)MTG ↓ (R)putamen ↑
FunctionalHuyser2010task fMRI2425PaediatricE/RP (Haan, Wolters et al)↑(L)↑(L)parietal cortex
Li2018rs-fMRI2020AdultE/RP↓(L)
LesionMetabolicZuo2013PET88Ages 16 to 29capsulotomy↓ (SMA)↑(R)occipital gyrus
Suetens2014PET1326Adultcapsulotomy↑ occipital cortex
FunctionalYin2018rs-fMRI2729Adultcapsulotomy↓NAcc
DBSMetabolicVan Laere2006PET620AdultALIC↓ NAcc,(L)hippocampus,(L)PCC
Le Jeune2010PET1010AdultSTN
Lee2019FDG-PET20AdultInferior thalamic peduncle↓(R)↑(L)↓(R)↓(R)putamen, SMA. ↑ M1,(L)temporal pole.
Park2019FDG-PET20AdultNAcc
PerfusionFigee2014SPECT1515AdultNAcc↓ areas surrounding the NAcc
FunctionalFigee2013rsfMRI913AdultNAcc↓NAcc
TMSMetabolicNauczyciel2014PET190Adult1 Hz @ R. OFC↓(R)
  • Summary of neuroimaging results that correlated with improvement in behaviour as measured by Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Studies are separated by treatment class, then by evidence type. Subject numbers included only patients analysed at both preintervention and postintervention time points. Region of analysis indicators demonstrate direction of reported significant change, and when unilateral, the side is indicated as (R) for right and (L) for left hemispheres.

  • *Pharmacotherapy and CBT/ERP treatment classes were used simultaneously.

  • ACC, anterior cingulate cortex; ALIC, anterior limb of the internal capsule; CBT/ERP, cognitive–behavioural therapy/exposure and response prevention; DBS, deep brain stimulation; E/RP, exposure and response prevention; FDG, fluoro-deoxyglucose; fMRI, functional MRI; Glx, glutamate concentration; 5-HT, serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine; LFP, local field potential; M1, primary motor area; MCC, mid-cingulate cortex; MTG, middle temporal gyrus; NAA, N-acetylaspartate; NAcc, nucleus accumbens; OFC, orbitofrontal cortex; PCC, posterior cingulate cortex; PET, positron emission tomography; PFC, prefrontal cortex; rs-fMRI, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging; SMA, supplementary motor area; SPECT, single photon emission CT; SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; STN, subthalamic nucleus; TMS, transcranial magnetic stimulation; tNAA, total N-acetylaspartate.;